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Fingerprints

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Purple Lover

on 2 June 2013

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Transcript of Fingerprints

History Types and Patterns Introduction Criminal Identification Fingerprint Technology Reading Fingerprints Reading fingerprints dates back to ancient times
Chinese had made a way to tell one's destiny and personality by studying fingerprints
Men look at left hand because it represents Yang while women study right hand because it represents Yin, and both genders study from thumb to pinky
Look for circles (Os) and waves (Ws) Unique impressions on human fingers. Fingerprints Fingerprints are different on everyone, which includes identical twins, who share the same DNA. This is because fingerprints are not effected by family genes. This presentation will detail the following: types and patterns of fingerprints, fingerprint history, fingerprints for identifying criminals, fingerprint technology and reading fingerprints. However, the big question is: To what extent are fingerprints reliable to tell one about oneself? Challenges with human skin= chemicals will react with skin and print and skin will fall on the developed area which if victim is still alive, will have to be treated by many people who leave prints of their own
Human corpses have been fumed with superglue and brushed with lampblack successfully
After fingerprints have been collected, they are brought to lab to make an identification
Fingerprints collected are first compared to victim's, top suspect's and anyone's who had a reason to be there
Computer scans fingerprint and brings up similar ones in file and then, if no match is made, will compare prints to other crime's fingerprints
Examiner looks to see if two prints are in the same group, if prints are complete and clear enough, and if minutiae are in same but match is not made until two examiners agree Before recent years, fingerprint technology was considered pretty exotic
Fingerprint scanners are secure because criminals cannot pick locks and one cannot lose keys
Families don't need to find a place to hide spare keys and fingerprints can be added and deleted from system's memory easily
Fingerprint scanners are replacing computer passwords, too
With this, nobody can forget their password, and makes access quick and easy
Fingerprints cannot be guessed so if you lose your device, it cannot be used by anyone else
However, when one does hack system, it is much worse
Possible solution is combining a fingerprint scanner with a password
Two basic jobs of fingerprint scanner is to scan finger than compare to ones in file
Most common ways to do this: optical scanning and capacitance scanning
Optical scanning process: when one places their finger on glass plate, a charge couple device camera takes a picture but before comparing to ones in storage, system makes sure that image is clear
If image is too dark or light, system adjusts amount of exposure time and scans again
Capacitance scanners use electrical current and requires a finger-type shape
Scanners compare fingerprints much like examiners do but amount of similarities required to make a match varies between different systems Using fingerprints to identify people dates back thousands of years
In early 600 A.D, Chinese and Japanese used fingerprints as a signature for art
Chinese also used fingerprints for business and to identify children
First scientist to describe fingerprints was plant morphologist Nehemia Grew who published very accurate ridge pattern drawings
Czech physiologist, Johannes Evangelista Purjeknje wrote about ridge patterns with considerable detail and described fingerprint patterns in an essay
Early scientists did not want to solve crime, they were just so interested in their own fingerprints and wondered if anybody had the same ones This is the end of my presentation. I hope you have enjoyed learning about the types and patterns of fingerprints, fingerprint history, fingerprints as a way to identify criminals, fingerprint technology and reading fingerprints. But are these unique impressions reliable to tell one about oneself? Any questions? http://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/kilukilu/kilukilu1006/kilukilu100600057/7168719-reveal-fingerprints-on-knife.jpg http://itsachemicalworld.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/ninhydrin20print1.jpg http://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/lovleah/lovleah1102/lovleah110200087/8885932-a-forensic-scientist-dips-a-brush-into-latent-fingerprint-powder.jpg http://images-en.busytrade.com/59251200/Biometric-Fingerprint-Reader-New-M2-Hamster-Optical-Scanner.jpg http://img.diytrade.com/cdimg/1024377/25033088/0/1331633112/Capacitive_Fingerprint_scanner_Fingerprint_reader_Fingerprint_sensor.jpg http://i28.tinypic.com/oi7tz9.jpg Three basic groups: arches, loops and whorls
Arch rises in middle and can be plain or tented
Loop ridges turn back on themselves and either flow to pinky (ulnar loop) or flow to thumb (radial loop)
Whorl pattern has ridges that form a circle around a central point
Whorl has several subcategories including: the accidental, central pocket and double loop
In total, there are 1 024 groups based on more specific details called minutiae
Minutiae can form when a ridge: ends abruptly (ending ridge), splits into two (bifurcation) or is short in length (a dot)
There are names for combinations of minutiae (when two bifurcations face, it forms an island)
Three different types of fingerprints: latent prints, plastic prints and patent prints
Latent prints are invisible to naked eye
Since human finger are covered in eccrine glands, what produces sweat, whenever one touches an object, a latent print is left behind
Patent prints are formed when one gets hands covered in material like ink or paint and then touches an object
A plastic print is formed when one presses their bare finger in materials like clay or tar Gaensslen, R. E. "Fingerprints." Encyclopedia Americana. Grolier Online, 2013. Web. 5 Apr. 2013. http://galton.org/fingerprints/images/faulds-1920-08-27-thumb.gif http://image2.findagrave.com/photos/2012/163/91820489_133952725433.gif Gaensslen, R. E. "Fingerprints." Encyclopedia Americana. Grolier Online, 2013. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. Fingerprint Combinations Continued of "Reading Fingerprints" OOOOO
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OOWWW
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WOOOW Strong, independent, confident and hotheaded
Honest, sensitive, and shy
Gets jealous easily and will have success if chooses high-authority career
Must work hard in early years of career but will become wealthy when older
Should try to be humble and learn as much as possible
Clear-minded and kind hearted
Kind and polite yet also skeptical of others
Bad-tempered and quick to judge
Has good character but success really only comes in older age
Socially strong and enjoys taking risks
Intelligent and will benefit from wealth luck
Is impatient and will inherit business from a parent or an older person
Appears to be a bit snobbish but is actually kind
Is a deep thinker and will generally have a smooth life
Sociable and carefree
Rebellious, but if focuses on goals, will be very successful
Resembles a life of ups and downs
Kind and hardworking, this person will become very successful
Unstable life in early years but if works hard in 30s, older life will be much better
Has the tendency to start something then lose interest
Has good character, is helpful, popular, noble and shows sensitivity towards others
Is a fast and effective worker yet can act aggressively
Straight forward, naive, and a shallow thinker
High-minded and is best off working in financial and investment fields
Has good social skills
Brave, hardworking and trusted when young
Is kind and will succeed at academic jobs
Is peaceful and can become successful
Simple yet logical and if takes small steps will be wealthy and honored by people
Has strong character and is playful, however, easily offends others Combinations Meaning (traits and destiny) http://pslc.ws/macrog/kidsmac/firehouse/arson/images/fprints.gif Specialists like to look on envelopes, candy wrappers, tools and handles
Brush technique is most basic way to uncover prints and is done by using brushes made of 5-7.5 cm long camel hair and black powder
Magna Brush uses magnetic powder instead of bristles and works on more surfaces yet can still overdevelop
Chemicals work on more surfaces but can be more complicated and some supplies are hard to carry
Ninhydrin reacts with amino acids, turning latent prints purple
Ninhydrin works on paper and old prints but causes splitting headaches
Silver nitrate reacts with salt in sweat which creates silver chloride, making prints glow under ultraviolet
Works on many surfaces but stains everything
Cyanoacrylate (superglue) is put in airtight tank with important object and is heated, turning superglue into vapor
As vapor condenses, it becomes superglue again and sticks to print
1, 8-diazafluorence uncovers twice the amount of prints as ninhydrin without destroying content when used on paper or cause headaches and leave purple stains
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