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Transcript of English Project
Originally made because Louis XVI sensed discontent and banned the use of the Breaking Wheel, created as the new method of capitol punishment.
A French Physician by the name of Joseph Ignace Guillotin proposed the idea of the mechanical device to carry out death penalties, although Dr. Guillotine himself was opposed to the death penalty
Designed after the Scottish “Maiden” and “Halifax Gibbet”
Designed to be a “painless” way to kill a person, although some question was brought to this later.
Also Known as “Madame Guillotine” and the “National Razor”
Death Toll from the Guillotine was 16,000 40,000.
Last public guillotining was of Eugen Weidmann.
The Guillotine was the official method of execution in France until 1981. The last guillotining in France was that of Hamida Djandoubi in 1977.
Many different “guillotinesque” weapons were used in countries like Belgium, Germany, Austria, Scotland, Sweden, and South Vietnam.
Causes of the French Revolution Financial Problems- 1790half of their budget went towards the interest on the money that they borrowed to help with their part of the american revolution. 1/4 of the budget went to military. less than 1/5 was used to keep country in working order. To get out of debt they raised taxes, which afftected mostly the peasants.
American Revolution- Many of the french who fought in America came back inspired by the liberty and equality established in America. The American Revolution fit enlightenment theories.
The Estates General- 1st estaste-clergy-owned 10% of land in France. Had roughly 100,000 people. 2nd Estate- Made up of nobility. Owned about 25% of land and had about 400,000 people. They didnt have alot of taxes, if any at all. Could impose taxes on peasants for hunting, baking bread, fishing, and pressing grapes. 3rd Estate-Everyone else. Majority peasants. 98% of people who paid taxes did not have a say in government, which obviously led to alot of problems. Ending results- Constitution of 1795 brought in a period of reconstruction of the government. New legislature-2 houses- Council of Ancients (250 Member who had to have been in had to have served On National Convention between 1792 to 1795.) and the Council of 500. Also had the Directory-5 officers. Had Annual Elections to keep gov't in check.
Problems with directory- began to abuse power. Election of 1797 led to a strong conservative gov't with strong financial policies and giving more punishments such as executions when it came to radicalism.
1799 council of 500 elected Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes to directory. He enlisted aid of Napoleon to topple directory with military coupe. Napoleon overthrew directory and made himself first consul of a military dictatorship and effectively ended the Revolution. THE END