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Compare and contrast Roman, Greek, and Persian empires
Transcript of Compare and contrast Roman, Greek, and Persian empires
Politics in the Greek empire
Politics of the Roman empire
The empire stretched from Mesopotamia in the east to the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain) in the west
The last century of the Republic left Rome in disarray: violence, lawlessness, and civil strife had destroyed the Republic’s political processes
The first emperor of Rome, Augustus embarked on a massive reorganization of Roman systems with the aim of establishing law and order
Augustus built a foundation for his rule by consolidating political power in himself
Augustus also reshaped the Senate, reducing its number from over one thousand to six hundred by weeding out senators he considered unworthy and handpicking its membership
Augustus and his successors built a system of imperial government to administer the empire’s vast territories and link them to the capital. This system, which allowed the provinces some form of independence while being subject to Roman taxations and military control
Roman society under the empire was organized according to a hierarchy of social classes
At the top of the hierarchy, of course, was the emperor, his family, and the imperial court. Next came the senatorial elite
The equestrians, a class that had emerged during the late Republic, were businessmen who had profited from manufacturing and trade; this class came to dominate the imperial bureaucracy.
On the lower end of the hierarchy were the plebeians, the ordinary citizens of Rome. Individually, the plebeians had little power, but as a group they could have great influence
Politics in the Persian empire
Culture of the Roman Empire
Culture of the Greek Empire
The ancient Greeks were a deeply religious people. They worshipped many gods whom they believed appeared in human form and yet were endowed with superhuman strength and ageless beauty.
While many sanctuaries honored more than a single god, usually one deity such as Zeus at Olympia or a closely linked pair of deities like Demeter and her daughter Persephone at Eleusis dominated the cult place.
Elsewhere in the arts, various painted scenes on vases, and stone, terracotta and bronze sculptures portray the major gods and goddesses.
The walls of tomb chambers were often painted in fresco, although few examples have survived in as good condition as the Tomb of the Diver from southern Italy.
Early Greek burials were frequently marked above ground by a large piece of pottery, and remains were also buried in urns.
Men ran the government, and spent a great deal of their time away from home. When not involved in politics, the men spent time in the fields, overseeing or working the crops, sailing, hunting, in manufacturing or in trade.
The most respected occupation in ancient Greece was farming this led to Greece being an agricultural society
Citizenship or the relation of the individual to the state or government was extremely relevant in ancient Greece
Greece was not a unified country and the land was dotted with hundreds of independent city states. Laws and traditions varied considerably
Land ownership was directly linked to power and respect in ancient Greece
Ownership of land depended on factors like who your family is and how much wealth you already have
Citizens in communities had certain rights but they also carried responsibility for example male citizens were often required to be apart of a jury duty or serve in the military in times of war
Athens was the first civilization to develop a democracy within their government
All of the democratic countries today have based at least part of their government on the Democracy developed in Athens
Most Greeks believed in Equality before actual law, and many of the city states in Greece did not believe in slavery and often freed slaves
In many Greek city states the governments were ruled by one person
Sparta believed in a dual monarchy
Boys as young as seven years old were sent to military school
In 539 bce Persia was the largest empire the world has ever seen
King Cyrus decided to expand boundaries by conquering Babylon
The Persian leaders required cooperation and imposed a 20 percent tax on all agriculture and manufacturing. They also taxed religious institutions
The Persians themselves paid no taxes
The Persian kings — especially Cyrus and, later, Darius I (522-486 B.C.E.) — developed a model for the administration of a large empire that was copied by others in the future. Laws were carried out fairly and evenly among all of the various subject peoples.
The Persians divided their empire into 20 provinces that were managed by governors
Darius I built a communication network that connected most of the empire
A 1,600-mile-long royal road was built from Sardis to Susa, one of the administrative capitals. Along this road, were numerous places for lodging, where royal couriers could obtain fresh horses and supplies for trade.
The ruling in the persian empire was a monarchy and the twenty provinces were managed by governors.
The Colosseum in Rome is an amphitheater. It was developed as an improvement over the Circus Maximus for gladiatorial combats, wild beast fights (venationes), and mock naval battles (naumachia). Gladiators fought, often to the death, to entertain crowds of spectators.
The Romans also worshiped many gods and spirits.
Romans worshiped multiple numen.
Romans believed that every household had a protective spirit.
Sacrifices were very common including food.
Approval from the gods was a major belief.
The Persian, Greek, and Roman Empires
By: Drew Steinnetz, and Ryan Bronaugh
Culture of the Persian Empire
The Persians had different religious gatherings, including the Egyptians, Jews, and Greeks.
Zoroastrianism arose in the eastern region of the ancient Persian Empire, when the religious philosopher Zoroaster simplified the pantheon of early Iranian gods.
Zoroastrianism developed through verbal correspondence and Ahura Mazda ruled as the preeminent god.
Zoroastrianism explicitly forbids slavery and Cyrus the Great followed this ban to varying degrees.
Zoroastrianism had an impact general in framing the idea of good/insidiousness, whether existence in the wake of death was tranquil or torment, alongside having impact on later religions including, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Farming was conspicuous as the Persians developed numerous grains, natural products, and vegetables. They developed grain, wheat, peas, lentils, mustard, garlic, onions, cucumbers, dates, apples, pomegranates, pears, and apricots. Alongside having lager and wine as drinks.