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World War 1
Transcript of World War 1
By: Mikayla Caudill
How did WWI begin?
What were the main battles of WW1?
What countries were involved in the war?
The Assassination of Austria's Archduke.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated on June 28, 1914 along with his wife.
He was the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary.
They were both killed by a gunshot.
A young Serbian nationalist named Gavrilo Princip assassinated them because the Serbians were angry about being annexed by Austria-Hungary.
The assassination caused a chain of events which eventually results in World War 1.
What new things came about during WW1?
How was the war resolved?
The Battle of Verdun, 1916
The battle lasted 10 months.
The battle was between the French and the Germans.
It considered to be one of the most brutal events in WW1.
Both of the armies suffered many casualties.
France was threatened by German industrialization and fortified their borders prior to the battle.
The strongest part of their fortification was located in a French city in the Swiss frontier called Verdun.
There was no advantage gained from either side when it all ended.
The Battles of Marne, 1914 & 1918
The advances of the German army through Belgium and Northern France caused mass panic throughout the French army.
French troops in Paris were dispatched to halt the German advance.
Ironically, the Germans invaded Marne again thanks to the successful offense they put up.
The four years in between had cost both sides tons of money and lives just to literally get back where they started.
The Battles of Ypres, 1914, 1915, 1917
The first battle was fought in 1914 was an attempt of the BEF (British Expeditionary Force) to halt rapid German advances.
The second battle fought in 1915 was most notable for the first use of chemical warfare because the Germans used poison gas in this particular battle.
The third one was planned out by the Germans and took place on July 31, 1917.
This battle resulted badly for the Germans due to overly-ambitious aims, awful weather conditions and misguided persistence.
The Battle of the Somme, 1916
How and When Did America get Involved in the War?
America had tried its best to stay out of the war, but America had been trading with other nations who were involved.
German submarines sunk the Lusitanian ship which was a British ocean liner that was headed to New York from Liverpool on May 7, 1915.
This didn't immediately put America in the war, but it did turn many public opinions against Germany in America.
The second offense was in 1916 when German U-Boats sunk another trade ship called the Sussex and this angered many Americans because the Germans were pretty much denying them their right to trade overseas.
The incident that finally made America declare war on Germany was the Zimmerman Telegram which was an event where the Germans were trying to get Mexico and Japan to attack America.
America finally declared war on Germany on April 6, 1917.
The battle took place by the river Somme on July 1, 1916.
The British Army intended to break the German defences by marching their troops across no man's land in uniformed lines.
The British tried to take out German machine gun posts, but they were instead mowed down by German artillery.
This resulted in one of the largest slaughters in military history because the British army suffered many casualties in this advance.
The Battle of Cambrai, 1917
The battle took place on November 20, 1917.
The British had a secret weapon that they were going to use in this attack and that weapon was the tank.
With 476 tanks and supported with British infantry, the British broke through the German defences which surprised both themselves and the Germans.
The gains from this attack were very dramatic and this battle demonstrated a well thought-out attack that could be used to break a trench deadlock.
What was America's Role in the War?
America entered the war in1917 and swooped in to help out France and Britain and the other Allies (the group of nations fighting against Germany) fight against Germany. France and Britain were low on supplies so America lent some to them and put many American forces to protect against the Germans in the Western Front. America fought hard against Germany and helped speed the war up and letting it end in1918 rather than later on. So in other words, America was a valuable part of the fighting in WW1.
Many countries were involved in WW1, but most of them only had a small role in the war. Most of countries involved were on the Allies or the "Entente Powers". The main four were France, Russia, America, and England. On the opposing side was Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey. Germany and its allies were greatly out-numbered and has less resources, but they did have the technology to be able to put up a good fight.
France and Colonies
Germany was starting to run very low on supplies while the Allies (America, France, Britain, etc.) were getting a steady stream of military strength, food, oil, weapons, etc. So they eventually surrendered on November 11, 1918.Once Germany surrendered, a six month long peace conference was held in Paris, France. France accused Germany of being responsible for the war and wanted Germany to suffer some sort of consequences.So the Treaty of Versailles was written and signed by Germany. In the Treaty of Versailles it says that Germany has to pay for all the damages made (which will lead to their economy crash later on) and that they couldn't build up their army past a certain amount (which will be violated later on as well and lead to the second world war).
Most of the main battles were fought in or around Marne, France which is high-lighted in red on the map to the left.
These battles were mainly fought between the French and German armies.
There were many casualties on both sides in these five battles that I'm about to describe.
These battles are said to be some of the most brutal and bloody battles in world's history.
There were many more battles fought in WW1 but the following six portray the new things that came about the best such as the uses of chemical and trench warfare and the use of automatic weapons and armored vehicles.
The Main Battles of WW1
The bar graph on the left depicts the casualties of the countries involved in the fighting of WW1.
In green, it shows the number of men mobilized or sent into battle.
The red shows how many men died in the war.
Gray shows how many men were wounded in the fighting.
And the brownish-tan bar represents the amount of men who went missing or were prisoners of war (POW's)
The Casualties of the War
Many new things came about in this time period. The way wars were fought was changed when trench and chemical warfare came about. New weapons such as automatic rifles and armored vehicles were being made. But the war also brought about a social change. Women started leaving the houses and took the places of the men away at war in the factories.
This graph shows the increase of women joining the workforce during the 18th century.
The top left one shows how many single women joined.
The top right is for women who were widowed, divorced or separated in the 18th century.
The bottom left shows the increase of women who were married that had probably stepped into their husband's place.
Finally, the bottom right shows women who were married and had children under the age of six.
The Involvement of Women in the Workforce