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Crustaceans

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by

Nathan Sullivan

on 1 November 2013

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Transcript of Crustaceans

Crustaceans
Phylum Arthropoda:
Subphylum Crustacea
Chapter 19
Lobsters, crayfish, crabs, “true” shrimp
3 pairs of maxillipeds, 5 pairs of walking legs
Chelea (cheliped): 1st pair of walking legs modified to form pincers
Size: few mm to 4m (Japanese spider crab, pincer-tip to pincer-tip)
Hermit crabs: live in shells, lack heavy exoskeleton on abdomen

Order Decapoda

3 Subclasses; 14 Orders; 20,000 known species
Order Isopoda: sow bug, pill bugs, rolly pollies
Only terrestrial crustacean
Must live in moist environments
Order Euphausiacea: krill
Most bioluminescent
Photophore: organs that produce chemicals that produce light
Order Decapoda: lobsters, shrimp, crabs

Class Malacostraca

Branchiopods: brine shrimp, water fleas, daphnia, sea monkeys, “triops”
Most freshwater
Water fleas: make up freshwater zooplankton
Phyllopodia: legs serve as chief respiratory organ
Legs used for suspension feeding

Class Branciopoda

Molting: process of making a larger cuticle
Ecdysis: Greek, shedding of the cuticle
Exoskeleton is not living & doesn't grow
Enzymes dissolve inner layer of exoskeleton
Animal absorbs water, increasing blood volume
Internal pressure causes cuticle to split, animal pulls itself out of old exoskeleton
After molting, new exoskeleton is stretched before hardening
Animal is defenseless during molting process
Occurs frequently in young animals as they grow
Molting & Ecdysis
“Crusta” Latin for “shell”, most crustaceans have hard shells
67,000 species
Insects & Crustaceans make up 80% of all named animal species
Mandibulates: arthropods that have mandibles, include crustaceans & uniramians
Mandibles: jaws, used in chewing food
Mostly marine, some freshwater, few terrestrial

Crustaceans
Subclass Copepoda
Size: few mm or less
Lack carapace
Significant ingredient in zooplankton
Subclass Cirripedia: barnacles
Marine only, most sessile suspension feeders, some parasitic
Live inside a shell made of 6 plates
Attachment occurs at the head region with thoracic appendages pointed out of shell

Class Maxillopoda (5 Subclasses)

Branchiopoda
Maxillopoda (5 Subclasses)
Subclass Copepoda
Subclass Cirripedia
Malocostraca (3 Subclasses, 14 Orders)
Order Isopoda
Order Euphausiacea
Order Decapoda

Crustacean Classes (6 classes)
Characteristics, cont
Muscles are striated
Flexors: draw towards body
Extensors: extend outward
Respiration occurs via thin areas of cuticle & gills
Open circulatory system: hemolymph(blood) leaves heart via arteries, circulates through body, & returns via venus sinuses (instead of veins)
Nervous & sensory
Chemical receptors for taste & smell found on antennae, mouth parts, etc.
Compound eyes
Most crustaceans go through metamorphosis (except crayfish)
Nauplius: crustacean larvae, 3 pairs of appendages
Well-defined head, thorax, & abdomen
Paired appendages on head for:
Sensory (antennae: 2 pair)
Chewing food (mandible: 1 pair)
Food handling (maxillae: 2 pairs)
Thoracic & abdominal appendages for walking or swimming
Only arthropods w/2 pairs of antennae
Carapace covers head in most classes abdominal region covered, too
Crustacean Characteristics
Complex muscular system
Complete digestive system
Open circulatory system
Respiration by skin, gills, tracheae, book lungs (or book gills: flat, leaf-like gills)
Dioecious,
Can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous.
Most go through metamorphosis
Metamorphosis: drastic change from larval to adult stage, larvae & adults have different dietary needs
Characteristics cont
Bilateral symmetry, coelomate
1,100,000 known species
Segmented bodies divided into tagmata (fused regions: cephalothorax & abdomen, or head, thorax, & abdomen)
Jointed appendages
Cuticular exoskeleton: external skeleton containing proteins, lipids, shed/molted periodically
Chitin: tough, nitrogenous polysaccharide insoluble in water, alcohol, or acids (ie stomach acid)
Arthropod Characteristics
“Triops”

Daphnia, Water Flea

Brine Shrimp

Blue Crab

Dungeness Crab

King Crab

Crayfish

Lobster

Order Decapoda

Cleaner Shrimp

Order Euphausiacea: krill

Order Isopoda

Class Malacostraca

Oviparous
producing young by means of eggs that are hatched after they have been laid by the parent
Ovoviviparous
Producing eggs that hatch within the female's body without obtaining nourishment from it.
Viviparous
bringing forth live young that have developed inside the body of the parent.
Full transcript