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SCIENTIFIC METHOD

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by

Rebeca Lujan

on 2 September 2013

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Transcript of SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Variables - Factors that can be changed

Controlled Variables - all the variables that remain constant

Manipulated Variable - (also called the Independent Variable) - factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely changes

Responding Variable- (also called the Dependent Variable) - the outcome or results, factor in an experiment that may change because of the manipulated variable…. what a scientist wants to observe

SCIENTIFIC METHOD EXPERIMENT

Examine data tables, charts, and graphs
Examine experimental notes
Look for trends, patterns, and averages
What does the data show
Put your data into words

ANALYZE THE DATA

In a controlled experiment, only one factor is changed at a time.
Independent variable: the factor that is deliberately changed
Dependent variable:
the factor that the scientist wants to observe; it changes in response to the independent variable

SETTING UP A CONTROLLED EXPERIMENT

The scientific method is-
A logical and systematic approach or process to problem solving.
An organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world.
A body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. It is based on gathering observable, empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning, the collection of data through observation and experimentation, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses.

Restate the hypothesis:
Example: Flies produce maggots.
Accept or reject the hypothesis.
Support your conclusion with specific, numerical data.
What was Redi’s conclusion?
Flies lay eggs too small to be seen.
Maggots found on rotting meat are produced
from the eggs laid by flies.
Maggots are not appearing due to spontaneous generation!

DRAW CONCLUSIONS

Redi’s Hypothesis:
Flies produce maggots.
How could he test this?
Through a controlled experiment

FORMING A HYPOTHESIS

If needed, Do more investigation

Make an Observation
Define the Problem
Research the Problem
State the Hypothesis
Experiment to test Hypothesis
Collect and Record Data
Analyze Data
Draw Conclusions
Determine Limitations
Report Results

If leaf lands on water it becomes a fish
If bale of hay left in barn it produces mice
Muddy soil gives rise to frogs
Meat hung out in the market is the source of flies

Data:

observations and measurements made in an experiment

COLLECT AND RECORD DATA

Controlled Variables: jars, type of meat, location, temperature, time

Manipulated Variables: gauze covering that keeps flies away from meat

Redi observed that maggots appeared on meat a few days after flies were on meat
No microscope = no way to see eggs
But Redi believed that maggots came from eggs that were laid by flies

Jars with meat

Uncovered jars

Covered jars

Redi used two groups of jars
Jars that contained meat and no cover
Jars that contained meat and gauze cover

Uncovered jars

Covered jars

Covered jars

Uncovered jars

Two groups of Jars with meat

Which is the control group?
Which is the experimental group?

(manipulated or independent variable)

Experimental group:

Control group:

Two groups of jars

Covered jars

Uncovered jars

used as a standard of comparison
the group containing the factor (variable) that
has been changed

CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS

Redi’s Experiment on Spontaneous Generation

Controlled Variables:
jars, type of meat,
location, temperature,
time

CONCLUSION: Maggots form only when flies come in contact with meat. Spontaneous generation of maggots did not occur.

Responding Variable:
whether maggots
appear

No maggots appear

Maggots appear

Several
days pass

Covered jars

Uncovered jars

Manipulated Variables:
gauze covering that
keeps flies away from
meat

HYPOTHESIS: Flies produce maggots.

OBSERVATIONS: Flies land on meat that is left uncovered. Later, maggots appear on the meat.

PROCEDURE

THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD EXPERIMENT
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