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Transcript of SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Variables - Factors that can be changed
Controlled Variables - all the variables that remain constant
Manipulated Variable - (also called the Independent Variable) - factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely changes
Responding Variable- (also called the Dependent Variable) - the outcome or results, factor in an experiment that may change because of the manipulated variable…. what a scientist wants to observe
SCIENTIFIC METHOD EXPERIMENT
Examine data tables, charts, and graphs
Examine experimental notes
Look for trends, patterns, and averages
What does the data show
Put your data into words
ANALYZE THE DATA
In a controlled experiment, only one factor is changed at a time.
Independent variable: the factor that is deliberately changed
the factor that the scientist wants to observe; it changes in response to the independent variable
SETTING UP A CONTROLLED EXPERIMENT
The scientific method is-
A logical and systematic approach or process to problem solving.
An organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world.
A body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. It is based on gathering observable, empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning, the collection of data through observation and experimentation, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses.
Restate the hypothesis:
Example: Flies produce maggots.
Accept or reject the hypothesis.
Support your conclusion with specific, numerical data.
What was Redi’s conclusion?
Flies lay eggs too small to be seen.
Maggots found on rotting meat are produced
from the eggs laid by flies.
Maggots are not appearing due to spontaneous generation!
Flies produce maggots.
How could he test this?
Through a controlled experiment
FORMING A HYPOTHESIS
If needed, Do more investigation
Make an Observation
Define the Problem
Research the Problem
State the Hypothesis
Experiment to test Hypothesis
Collect and Record Data
If leaf lands on water it becomes a fish
If bale of hay left in barn it produces mice
Muddy soil gives rise to frogs
Meat hung out in the market is the source of flies
observations and measurements made in an experiment
COLLECT AND RECORD DATA
Controlled Variables: jars, type of meat, location, temperature, time
Manipulated Variables: gauze covering that keeps flies away from meat
Redi observed that maggots appeared on meat a few days after flies were on meat
No microscope = no way to see eggs
But Redi believed that maggots came from eggs that were laid by flies
Jars with meat
Redi used two groups of jars
Jars that contained meat and no cover
Jars that contained meat and gauze cover
Two groups of Jars with meat
Which is the control group?
Which is the experimental group?
LET’S THINK ABOUT THIS.…
(manipulated or independent variable)
Two groups of jars
used as a standard of comparison
the group containing the factor (variable) that
has been changed
CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS
Redi’s Experiment on Spontaneous Generation
jars, type of meat,
CONCLUSION: Maggots form only when flies come in contact with meat. Spontaneous generation of maggots did not occur.
No maggots appear
gauze covering that
keeps flies away from
HYPOTHESIS: Flies produce maggots.
OBSERVATIONS: Flies land on meat that is left uncovered. Later, maggots appear on the meat.
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD EXPERIMENT