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Jasmine Tan

on 10 November 2013

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Transcript of TLE REPORT

Pond Culture of Fish
The pond culture of fish in the country started since the Malays came. The culture of milkfish in brackishwater has been practiced in the province of Rizal and Iloilo even before the 2nd World War.
The source of water in the pond may be brackishwater. Fresh water pond are supplied by deep well and lake.
Pond size and Site selection
The size of the pond depends on whether cultured fish will be for family consumption or for commercial purposes. There are several kinds of fish suited for backyard fishpond.
The important factors to consider in choosing the site for the pond are :
1. topography
2. water source
3. soil
4. socio-economic factor
Soil - Clay and clayey-loam soil are the best types of soil suitable for fishpond. Hard mud is preferred to the soft and loose kind.
Socio-Economic Factors - the site should be accessible to market and transportation. This area should be peaceful with available supply of materials and labor.
Pond Layout and Selection - Brackishwater ponds are generally constructed from mangrove swamplands.
There are important factors to consider before constructing a fishpond.
1. Pond size and site selection
2. Pond layout
3. Methods of culture
4. Source of clock
5. Pest and predator content
Giant Gourami
Fish farmers consider tilapia as the best, because it is easy to handle and does not require expensive ponds.
Topography - preferred sites for fishponds are level marshes, swampland or tidal flats. Rolling areas require more expenses for excavation and leveling of the ground.
Water Source - Brackishwater culture requires water from tidal river, streams, or creek, or water directly from the sea. A source of fresh water is also beneficial especially during long dry spells to reduce the salinity of sea water.
Source of Fry and Fingerling
The milkfish fry and fingerlings are cultured in pond just like in the operation of a piggery and poultry. Fries are produced by Sabalo, a mature bangus that breeds near the seashore. The fry is collected in the morning during high tides especially during the months of March to December.
There are also some hatcheries that produce bangus fry by the artificial spawning of the sabalo. A bangus fry grows to fingerling size in about 4-6 weeks under favorable conditions.
Cause of Fry Mortality
The common causes of fry mortality in nurses are :
1. pollution
2. parasites and diseases
3. predators
4. sudden changes in temperature and salinity of water
5. change in the physical and chemical condition of water
Methods of Culture
3 Methods of growing milkfish in brackishwater pond :
a. Lumut Method - Lumut is a filamentous green algae that grows well with low water salinity. The lumut is the natural food of the bangus.
b. Lab-lab Method - is a greenish/brownish mass at the bottom of the sea which consists of diatoms, blue-green algae, protozoan, nematodes, and coelenterates. It contains high protein. Lab-lab method is now the most widely applied type of culture for milkfish in the country.
c.Plankton Method - are microscopic plants and animals suspended in water. This method of culture is also known as the deep-water method.
Factors that contribute to success in fishpond culture :
1. Proper pond preparation and management
2. Proper handling of fingerlings, stocking rate, and pond area,
3. Sufficient supply of fish food
4. Eradication of pests and predators
5. Supply of clean water
Harvesting of Fish
Harvesting of fish may be done by means of net or bamboo fish trap. Fresh fish are taken to fish ports where vendors and buyers of fish are waiting to bring them to other markets.
Marketing & Storage of Fish
Fish is a highly perishable commodity requiring speed and proper distribution from the source to the consumers. Fish ports, markets, ice plants, and cold storage houses & refrigerated trucks are all important in the efficient & profitable production of fish.
Net Making
1. Impounding nets - a fishing gear that is made of net to confine the fish. It is generally anchored or permanently attached to the bottom so that it can be freely moved to different locations.
2. Scooping nets - the net is submerged and then swiftly lifted to capture or enclose the fish that happens to be over it.
3. Drag nets - are pulled through the water or near the bottom to filter the fish by the actively moving gear.
4. Trawl - it is a conical bag with the mouth kept open which is towed behind a moving boat.
5. Seine net - is a long net that is used to surround a school of fish.
6. Gill net - is a simple walled curtain-like nets set vertically in the water that allows the fish head to pass but not the body, and catch the fish in the gills, as the fish try to withdraw.
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