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Transcript of JAZZ MUSIC
1910 : New Orleans Style or Dixieland
First facts before birth of Jazz
Songs sung by slaves while they are working.
Call and response structure and improvised lyrics.
Tools are instruments.
It was a way to express their feelings freely.
They dissapear by the year 1865.
From the XVI century, the slave traders from european countries started the trade of people from Africa to North America. In consequence, african states will ruin.
Review (in spanish):
In19th century, black slaves culture was very different than their african ancestors. They had slave's mentality .
There was a civil war fought from 1861 to 1865 in the United States.
After several Southern slave states declared their secession and formed the Confederate States of America (the "Confederacy" or the "South"). The states that remained were known as the "Union" or the "North".
The American Civil War was one of the earliest true industrial wars. Railroads, the telegraph, steamships, and mass-produced weapons were employed extensively.
AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
Abraham Lincoln declared the abolition of slavery in 1865. Anyway, racism in some southern states last until the end of the twentieth century... and even nowadays!!
Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865)
From black spirituals come Gospel songs ("God Spell"), more happy and modern.
Slaves adopt their masters religion: protestant christian, which gives a big importance to sing.
Slaves add their spontaneous and free expression from african music.
As a result: european songs in music and form, but africans about style of sing and body expression.
Setbacks are played by clapping hands
Body movements ("holy african dance")
A and B structure
Response song (priest speech, lead voice, sing together)
Bible expressing a freedom desire from opress people. Israel slave from Egypt. They talk about search of home (freedom), appearing transports (ship, train, on foot) simbolizing that they take flight. Hopeful is alive.
Bluesmen express their mood with easy melodies and melancholic lyrics.
In fact it's a complaining protest song.
Towards 1920, many bluesmen went to big cities.
B.B. King, "Key to the Highway"
ROBERT JOHNSON, "Sweet Home Chicago" (1936) Delta Blues Guitar Legend
Roots of Jazz
It is a writen piano music, without improvization.
It is a mix between romantic music for piano (Chopin, Lizt...), marches for military parades and european polka. Everything, under the concept and the spirit of black musicians.
Double bass (tuba)
Bands with 6 to 9 musicians.
Trumpet plays main melody, clarinet improvises by high notes and trombone plays "glissandos".
Those bands achieve great success, so white musicians used to copy them.
When this happened, we called them Dixieland Style (South Land)
The Original Dixieland Jass Band was the famous, and the first band incorporating the word "Jazz".
1920 : Chicago Style
In New Orleans, jazzmen used to play in streets as well as in bars, whorehouses and other places in Storyville suburb.
In 1917 Storyville is closed and musicians moved to north (St.Louis, Kansas, Chicago, New York), bringing with them blues and jazz music.
Unfortunately, black people lived in poverty, and quickly appear ghettos in every city.
In the city of Chicago, the "King Oliver Creole Jazz Band", directed by Joe Oliver is the successful band.
When Louis Armstrong moves from New Orleans to Chicago, he mades a revolution in that city.
First recording companyies and radios dedicated to jazz emerge on the scene.
Abolition of Prohibition (Dry Law) and Wall Street crash of 1929 ended with Chicago Style.
Less confusion becase there is less collective improvisation.
Solo parts (individual improvisation) become important.
Structure of the song i closed: main theme at beggining and end. In central part of the song appears solos of every instrument.
The voice as a soloist become more important, and new vocal thechnics are appearing, like SCAT (the old beat box).
The rythm is softer than Dixieland Style.
1920 : Chicago Style
Big Bands and Swing music
It is a very dance jazz music, often associated to "Big Bands", which are groups with 10 to 20 musicians.
They include saxophone and guitar (banjo substitute).
The organisation requires the leading figure of the Arranger, whose job is adapt famous jazz standart songs. The Arranger writes sheet music for every instrument.
Every Big Band is known as the name of the Arranger, often the leader of the orchestra.
Some important Big Bands: Duke Ellington, Count Basie and Glenn Miller.
They used to play in very important clubs, where people came to dance and listen to the music. The most famous was "Cotton Club", in New York.
Improvisation is less important. Only a few solos between writen parts played by all the orchestra
Big Bands sound is more melodious and tuneful, richer and softer than other styles.
Scales and chords are more complex, and chromatic scale gains importance.
Three sections: Rythm, brass and saxophones.
Very diferent rhytms: Latin, Caribbean, but always dance, so it's Swing!!!
Features of music
1940: Be Bop
Bebop or bop is a style of jazz characterized by
based on the combination of harmonic structure and melody.
Bebop syle breaks the "sweet sound" of swing.
Upon reaching the 40s , jazz was musically in a dead end . Many musicians were frustrated by the limitations supposed to play in large groups ( big bands ) , and started looking for new ways of expression. It begin like an experiment!
The younger generation of jazz , especially Parker and Gillespie, chose to laugh openly of standards.
Individualization of the rhythm section, breaking the continuity of natural frequency of the swing. This is a clear influence of Afro-Cuban rhythms , polyrhythms as false . The basic pulsation is internalized and rhythmic instruments , like drums, become independent of it and assume roles melodic .
Using very quick tempos.
Prevalence of individual solos.
Features of music
Birth of Jazz
From 1718 to 1762 > Lousiana belongs to France
From 1762 to 1800 > Louisiana belongs to Spain
From 1800 to 1803 > Lousiana returns to be French.
In 1803 Lousiana is buyed by United States for $15,000,000.
New Orleans was a port city. The need for unskilled jobs makes a lot of black people (and other races) are going to live.
As a consequence, this makes a variety of peoples, races and cultures.
There were 2 black communities: Creole (with French and Spanish blood) and African-american (only African blood).
The end of the Spanish-American War cheapens musical instruments, and many people has access to play music.
Storyville district (1897-1917) is created in New Orleans, with great nightlife.
New Orleans has a great musical tradition, present in "street parades", burials, "riverboats", at "Congo Square"
Storyville district in 1910
Street parade a New Orleans, el 1900
Cartell anunciador d'un event a un "riverboat"
New Orleans port in 1900
Dances a la Congo Square, segle XVIII
Lousiana in 1803
Purchase certificate of slave in Habana (Cuba)
Blue (Union-North) and Grey (Confederation-South) soldiers
The states during the Civil War
The pentatonic scale and its origin with slaves... Amazing!!!
The city of New Orleans
Livery Stable Blues, first jazz song recorded by Original Dixieland Jazz Band
Jazz - Ken Burns documentary (in spanish)-
Episode 1: Origins (1880) to 1917
Episode 2: 1917-1924
Episode 3: 1924-1929
Episode 4: 1929-1934
Episode 5: 1934-1937
Facts about slave trade