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Monotones Grundrauschen oder Marketing 3.0?

vera rachmawaty

on 3 May 2010

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Transcript of pyrometallurgy

What is Titanium? Titanium, which was named after the Greek god Titanes, has a lustrous white color.
The metal has a low density, good strength, excellent corrosion resistance, and it is easily fabricated.

Titanium is used in the manufacture of steel as a reducer and alloying element

During steelmaking, titanium is usually introduced as ferrotitanium

By its reducing capacity, titanium is considerably superior to Si&Mn, and inferior only to Al&Zr, through it has a number of advantages over them.

These advantages are that the products of titanium reduction have low melting points and are readily reverted to slag Universally used in the steel industries, the Ferro Titanium Alloy manufactured by some companies is used as an additive in the production of optimum quality steel.

Ferro Titanium alloy is also preferred in the aviation industry as a raw material.


The titanium is highly reactive with S, C, O, and N, forming insoluble compounds and sequestering them in slag. Therefore used for deoxidizing (REDUCTION), and sometimes for desulfurization and denitrification Ferro-titanium is consequently used in steel refining for deoxidation, grain-size control, and carbon and nitrogen control and stabilization and in some cases for denitrification or desulfurization.
Ferrotitanium - is a ferroalloy which is generated out of ilmenite concentrate and titanium waste in out-of-furnace aluminothermic method (low-percentage ferrotitanium) or by alloying of iron and titanium waste in the electric furnace (high-percentage ferrotitanium). Pure titanium is soluble in concentrated acids, such as sulfuric and hydrofluoric acids, and insoluble in water.

Titanium melts at about 1727°C (about 3140°F), boils at about 3287°C (about 5949°F), and has a specific gravity of 4.5. The atomic weight of titanium is 47.87.

The metal is extremely brittle when cold, but is readily malleable and ductile at a low red heat. Chemical Composition of FerroTitanium

•The fields of ferrotitanium application are alloying and deoxidation of steels for needs of:
Manufacturing Ferro Titanium Application of Ferro Titanium What is Ferro Titanium? Product Thank You!!! Pyrometallurgy Ferro Titanum Alloys then... Group Members Vera Yulia Rachmawaty Markus Tanzil Riska Agustin Ratih Ayu Novitasari •The steels enriched with titanium possess the advanced mechanical, anticorrosive and heat resisting properties. The titanium bounds carbon into strong carbides and prevents from formation the chromium carbides. Besides it reduces intercrystalline corrosion and improves weldability of rust-resisting nickel-chromium steels •Ferrotitanium powder can be also used as a fuel in some pyrotechnic compositions. •Manganese alloyed ferrotitanium is investigated as a material for hydrogen storage •Ferrotitanium is applied in manufacture of steel for its deoxidation and degasification, and also as an alloying element
•The ferrotitanium of FeTi35C8 grade finds a wide application in manufacture of electrical welding electrodes. Questions Please In ferrous materials, titanium is used for its effect in producing carbides and finer grain sizes, contributing to quality improvement in steel and stainless steel, and to the development of new materials. Since its discovery, the mineral ilmenite has grown greatly in its importance. It is now the most important ore of titanium. but.. Ilmenite is not the only source of titanium. however.. as the geologist says about the groups of ilmenite These are the members of the Ilmenite Group
•Ecandrewsite (Zinc Iron Manganese Titanium Oxide)
•Geikielite (Magnesium Titanium Oxide)
•Ilmenite (Iron Titanium Oxide)
•Pyrophanite (Manganese Titanium Oxide)
Grade Ti type 1
Ti %minimum = 25
C % = 0.15
Si/Ti ratio = 0.18
P % = 0.05
S% = 0.05
Al/Ti ratio = 0.25
Cu % = 3 Grade Ti type 11
Ti %minimum = 23
C % = 0.15
Si/Ti ratio = 0.20
P % = 0.05
S% = 0.05
Al/Ti ratio = 0.27
Cu % = 3 Grade Ti type 111
Ti %minimum = 23
C % = 0.20
Si/Ti ratio = 0.28
P % = 0.08
S% = 0.08
Al/Ti ratio = 0.40
Cu % = 3 raw materials 1. complex iron-titanium ores 11. the titanomagnetites which contain ilmenite in combination with magnetic iron ore the titanium dioxide Ti02 content in these ores varies from 4.5 to 16% Physicochemical Principles of Smelting Process; Ferrotitanium Manufacturing Methods Titanium forms two compounds with Iron
chemical composition of concentrates % grade 1
Iron oxide, max = 53.6
Titanium dioxide, min = 42
Silica, max = 2.5
Moisture, max = 7 grade 11
Iron oxide, max = 53.6
Titanium dioxide, min = 40
Silica, max = 2.5
Moisture, max = 7 grade 111
Iron oxide, max = 53.6
Titanium dioxide, min = 38
Silica, max = 4
Moisture, max = 10 concentrates with a composition corresponding to specific standards are obtain by ore dressing Of these FeTi is a stable compund while Fe2Ti exist only in cemented carbide tool alloy With Carbon Titanium forms a stable carbide TiC, its heat a formation being 57000 cal. With Tm of TiC is 3100 C, its specific gravity 4.25 With Silicon Titanium forms silicides Ti5Si3, TiSi, and TiSi2.
Of these the most stable is Ti5Si3 with Tm 2120 C Titanium forms the following main oxides with Oxygen
Titanium dioxide TiO2 - AMPHOTERIC
Titanium oxide Ti2O3 - ACID
Titanium monooxide TiO - BASIC continue... titanium dioxide may be reduced by carbon in an electric furnace the reduction of titanium dioxide proceeds by stages, with the result that lower oxides form first since titanium forms a chemically stable compund with carbon (as titanium carbide) the reduction of Titanium Oxides brings not metallic titanium, but titanium carbide TiO2 +3C = TiC +2CO the resulting titanium carbide dissolves in the iron introduced into the mixture by iron chips or by ore
the alloy obtained is called ferrocarbon titanium
the composition of the alloys obtained is 15-20% Ti, 5-8% C, 1-3%Si
the remaining is iron and other impurities because of its high carbon content this alloy may be used for deoxidising or degassing carbonaceous steels
it is unfit as an alloying addition in the smelting of stainless and other special steels the carbon content in the alloy may be lowered by the introduction of Silicon
this binds titanium into stable compounds
metallurgy, architecture and construction, machine-building, petroleum industry, aviation and shipbuilding industry, etc in further process we can make Ferro Titanium as a synthetic briquette Iron-Titanium (Fe-Ti) Phase Diagram Figure 1 shows the iron-titanium phase diagram (up to 30 wt. % Ti) calculated with Thermo-Calc, coupled with TCFE3 thermodynamic database. The diagram has the following eutectic reaction at 1289 °C: Liquid —> Ferrite + Fe2Ti.

1.FeTi:68%-72%min Al:4.5%max Si:1.5%max S:0.03%max P:0.04%max C:0.1%max V:2%max

2.FeTi:30%-40%min Al:9.5%max Si:4%max S:0.03%max P:0.04%max Cu:0.4%max C:0.1%max

3.FeTi:25%-30% Al:8.5%max Si:5.0%max P:0.05%max S:0.03%max C:0.15%max Cu:0.4%max
This is Jinzhou guotai industrial co.,ltd.(China) produce all kinds ferro titanium, such as 30Ti 40Ti 70Ti. Miller and company, Russia & USA Chemistry: Ti65-75% C 0.30% max S 0.03% max Al4.50% max P 0.03% max V3.00% max Ukrainian industrial group Ferrotitanium is produced in lumps each of maximum 15 kg weight.
The quantity of particles screened through a steel sieve with mesh dimension 10x10mm should not exceed 6% of the total mass of the consignment for the ferrotitanium grades FeTi7005, FeTi701, FeTi7008, and not more than 10% for the rest of FeTi grades.

The lumps of ferrotitanium both in fracture and on the surface should not be contaminated with sand, slag or any other extrinsic materials.
The traces of dressing materials and oxide coating are admissible.
Grade FeTi70C1
Ti 65-75
Al max 5
Si max 1
C 0.4
P 0.05
S 0.05
Cu 0.4
V 3
Mo 2.5
Zr 2
Sn 0.15 Grade FeTi35C5
Ti 28-40
Al max 8
Si max 5
C 0.2
P 0.04
S 0.04
Cu 2
V 0.4
Mo 0.2
Zr 0.2
Sn 0.4 Grade FeTi35C7
Ti 28-40
Al max 9
Si max 7
C 0.2
P 0.07
S 0.05
Cu 2
V 0.8
Mo 0.5
Zr 0.2
Sn 0.05 Grade FeTi35C8
Ti 28-40
Al max 14
Si max 8
C 0.2
P 0.07
S 0.07
Cu 3
V 1
Mo 1
Zr 0.7
Sn 0.08 Charge of titanium ore that melted in electric furnace :
Steel scrap
To lower carbon content, we have to add some material such as :
Anyform of refractory materials

Fuction addition of baddeleyite :
Produce additional slag
Aid in forming a refractory skull
Act to regulate the current flow from electrode to charge

Function of addition Manganese and silicon :
Increasing Ti content of FeTi
Maintain Ti content more constant from tap to tap

Type of FeTi alloys :
Carbon content <0.5% : low carbon FeTi.
Don’t have enough ratio of titanium to carbon
Carbon content 0,5%-5% : medium carbon FeTi.
Carbon content >5% : high carbon FeTi.
Lower carbon content and raised the titanium content.
FeTi produced by reduction FeTi oxide with reducing agent in electric furnace
Reducing titanium ores with carbonaceous reducing agent so as to produce ferrotitanium containing up to 30% or even greater with C content <5%

FeTi alloys tapped after melting charge at T= 2100-2250°C with composition 15-18% Ti and 3-5% C

Process Ferrotitanium is smelted by the aluminothermic method in cast iron sectional shafts up to 2 m in diameter and 1.6 m high. The walls to the shaft are approximately 60 mm thickness. The shaft is either mounted on a special carriage equipped with cast-iron stools or installed on the shop floor. The slits in the joints are luted up with fireclay. The bottom is covered with 200-250 mm layer of magnesite powder. The mixture for smelting ferrotitanium is composed of :
ilmenite concentrate
aluminium grains
iron ore and lime every company will provide any kind differences of FerroTitanium different composition different technology different application what about Indonesia?
Are you dare to become a pioneer? literatures.... method of making metal alloys, particularly ferrotitanium alloy. July 26 1965 Comstock. F George. Ferro-Titanium Alloy and Method of Making same. United States Patent Office. Feb 13. 1934 Osaka Titanium Technologies Co. Ltd Strauss, Jerome. Manufacture of Ferrotitanium Alloys. United States Patent. Nov 26 1940 $ 7.5/kg Titanium in Indonesia Senin, 14 Februari 2005 10:45

Kapanlagi.com - Pemerintah Provinsi Jambi terus meningkatkan kerjasama dengan Korea Selatan (Korsel) untuk menggarap potensi pertambangan, khususnya titanium yang terkandung di wilayah tiga kabupaten, meliputi Kabupaten Merangin, Sarolangun dan Bungo. conclusions titanium itself can be alloyed with Fe, and the max content is 30% (based on phase diagram)
the advantage of the titanium: High strength, corrosion resistant, fatigue strength, and high thermal resistant
mostly usage of Ferrotitanium is used for raw material of another product like alloying of steels and etc
any researchs still in developing the advance application of Ferrotitanium like Mn- Fe-Ti for hydrogen storage
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