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Physiology 9: Reproduction
Transcript of Physiology 9: Reproduction
Asexual (mitosis, binary fission, etc.)
Sexual (n + n = 2n)
We'll mostly focus on sexual here. The "Sexual Handicap"...So why do it? Brief Review of Sexual Life Cycles Mostly n, occasionally 2n Mostly 2n, occasionally n "Alternation of generations" Actually, This is a bit more typical for fungi: You are familiar with the reproductive structures of mushrooms (which is, to say, the "mushroom") fruiting bodies producing spores! General Fungal Life Cycle Actual Fungal Life Cycle Examples Penicillium Mold Oyster Mushroom (a basidiomycete or "club fungus") Rhizopus, the Black Bread Mold (a zygomycete) Why wouldn't you want more of us? Preformationism...
Because everyone knows there's a little dude inside every sperm cell. Sexual Reproduction in Sea Slugs Asexual Reproduction in Anemones Parthenogenesis in Lizards
(sexual behavior still required!) Many "Options" Internal vs. External Fertilization How Much Parental Care? Human Reproductive Systems Need to know all structures and functions Contraception Spermatogenesis Hundreds of millions/day
Begins at puberty
Ends at Death (viability does decrease in old age)
1 spermatagonium produces 4 mature sperm cells Hormonal control of sperm production 1/month
Begins at puberty
Ends at menopause (why?)
1 oogonium produces 1 mature ovum & 2 polar bodies Oogenesis Hormonal control of ovum production Asexual Reproduction in Aspen Trees Sexual Reproduction in orchids Evolutionary Trends in Plant Reproduction Many plants reproduce asexually with ease Most plants require pollination for sexual reproduction Evolutionary history Sexual life cycle of a gymnosperm Sexual life cycle of an angiosperm Floral anatomy Angiosperm gamete production Pollinator Adaptations More Pollinator Adaptations Mechanisms to prevent self-pollination "Double Fertilization" Seed Development Fruit Development Seed Dispersal mechanisms Germination Monocots vs. Dicots Fun with Plant Reproduction Big Questions: Make Sure You Can: How are the reproductive systems of multicellular organisms adapted for sexual reproduction?
How do the constraints of the environment determine the adaptations in organismal reproductive systems?
How are the reproductive systems of animals and plants similar? How are the different? Compare sexual reproduction in fungi, animals, and plants.
Label all parts of the male and female reproductive systems and explain how they contribute to the functions of the systems.
Label all parts of a typical flower and explain how they contribute to sexual reproduction.
Demonstrate how reproductive technologies might have moral and ethical implications for society
Explain the causes of reproductive system disruptions and how disruptions of the reproductive system can lead to disruptions of homeostasis.
Explain how plant breeding technologies take advantage of the reproductive strategies of particular plants.
Cloning Stem Cells Any Questions? Various techniques have been developed to produce genetically identical offspring of parents.
These techniques have been used in all animal lineages
The clone is not completely identical to the parent (why?)
Legal restrictions prevent the reproductive cloning of humans in most of the world. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer-
The process used to create
Dolly & CC (the first cloned cat!) Stem cells are the regenerative cell populations in the body.
Different types vary in their degree of "potency."
At current, embryonic stem (ES) cells are the most potent.
Various therapies are in clinical trials, but none are widely available yet. An "idealized" monoecious flower.
Many angiosperms produce dioecious flowers. fuse with one pollen sperm to make triploid (3n) endosperm tissue for seed (food source) fuse with other pollen sperm to make diploid zygote Creates the pollen tube to deliver 2 sperm (from generative cell) to ovule What separates "sperm" from "egg"?
size & motility (that's it!) structure & function! a. dioecious plants have "male" and "female" flowers.
b. arrangement of styles and stamens can prevent self-fertilization (or at least minimize its chances) Coevolution! Could there be other mechanisms? Examples? What gets fertilized, and why? Note: Plant Sex is analogous to Animal Sex (NOT HOMOLOGOUS!!!) Why seeds? Why fruit? What are some of the differences in monocot and dicot germination? Learn These!!!
All other Angiosperms Protoplasts Artificial Selection: Teosinte vs. Maize Cloning of Plants is so easy!!!