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Transcript of Stem Cells
differentiation is limited Bone marrow transplant
Mix donor bone marrow with patients to get healthy stem cells
Replaces abnormal leukocytes (white blood cells) with healthy normal cells. day 5 and 6- does it look like a human to you yet? In conclusion, stem cells is worthy of investment and interest. In 1963, Ernest McCulloch and James Till discover stem cells in the transplanted mice bone marrow
In 1998, James Thomson is able to successfully remove cells from embryos and cultivate them in labs Somatic (Adult) Stem Cells In Vitro Fertilization Egg to Stem Cell Nuclear Transfer Stem Cell Classification Totipotent Pluripotent Multipotent Embryonic Adult Stem Cell Umbilical Stem Cells Pluripotent Pluripotency- differentiate into: Ectoderm, Endoderm, Mesoderm Self-renews Able to develop into more than 200 types of cells if specified to do so! Four types Induced (iPS) "True" ES cells ntES cells pES cells Special Qualities: most versatile
Be what you want!
Replicate in unlimited number sperm fertilizes egg divides and multiplies at a fast rate totipotent cells How Embryonic Stem Cells Are Cultivated in The Lab - Plastic Laboratory culture dish
-Mouse embryonic skin cells for sticky base that cells can attach to Multipotent- Adult Stem Cells Adult Stem Cells considered multipotent because their specialization potential is limited.
Gave rise to cells with a specific purpose and function
Harder to culture
Considered more ethical Multipotent- Umbilical Stem Cells Sorel Mason: diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia at age 2.
Dallas Hextel: diagnosed with cerebral palsy right after his birth. This disease is due to brain damage that makes a person lose muscle control.
65 year old year old patient had his upper jaw removed due to this nasty tumor, but a Finland scientist was able to fix it Success Stories But what is the biggest obstacle in stem research? the ethical controversy. Politics progression surrounding stem cell research 2001 President George W. Bush gives an executive order restricting federal funds for embryonic stem cell research
2009 President Obama’s executive order expands fundings for stem cell research Is this what your balance looks like? We hope not. So what is in store for stem cell research's future opportunities? Just from the basis of stem cells differentiation comes possible treatments for: a. Alzheimer's diseases
b. spinal cord injury
e. heart disease
g. osteoarthritis g. osteoarthritis
h. rheumatoid arthritis
j. missing teeth
k. deaf and blindness Adult stem cells are rare and difficult to extract. Hematopoietic stem cells (a type of adult stem cell) being cultured in a lab Complications in Adult Stem Cells Complications in Embryonic Stem Cells Microscopic picture of teratoma Adult Stem Cell Transplant: Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Peripheral blood stem cells can be used to treat cancers like somatic stem cell transplants but are much less invasive Stem Cell Application Where do embryonic stem cells come from? Where do adult stem come from? -Found almost anywhere in body!
-most common type is hemopoietic stem cell (makes different types of blood cells) Embyronic Stem Cells Stem Cell Policy Around The World Induced Pluripotent True ES cell ntES cells pES cells genetically reprogrammed. made from unused embryos transferring the nucleus Through chemical treatments,
unfertilized eggs can be “tricked”
into developing into embryos