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A2 Achievement Motivation

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Mark Whittingham

on 5 July 2016

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Transcript of A2 Achievement Motivation


Achievement motivation and its effect on performance and on following an active and healthy lifestyle
Lesson Objectives
Candidates should be able to:
•Atkinson and McClelland’s theory of achievement motivation (need to achieve and need to avoid failure);
•Sport-specific achievement motivation (e.g. competitiveness)

Achievement Motivation
Some Psychologists believe that a competitive inclination is a product of nature. Murray (1938) indicated that it was natural for one individual to strive to surpass another.
Detail 3
Atkinson and McClelland's Achievement Motivation (1976)
Achievement Motivation
Achievement Motivation links personality with the degree of competitiveness shown by an individual.
Its main focus is the extent to which an individual is motivated to attain success.
Which personality theory do you think could link to Achievement Motivation?
Conversely, Bandura (1977) believed that a competitive drive was a product of learning.
The theory most relevant to this section is an interactionist approach proposed by Atkinson and McClelland (1976).
These view achievement motivation as a personality trait which is activated by a situation.
The situation comprises the "probability of success" and the "incentive value of success"
What do you think is meant by these terms?
Atkinson and McClelland's Achievement Motivation (1976)
Probability of success: The extent to which success is likely; for example, success is more likely if the task is found by the individual to be easy
Incentive value of success: The intrinsic value experienced by the individual after success has been achieved; for example, the harder the task the greater will be the incentive value because the probability of success is reduced
TAS: High achievement motivation
TAF: Low Achievement motivation
Achievement Motivation personality traits
The previous diagram identifies two personality traits that determine achievement motivation
High need to achieve (High Nach): This is also associated with low need to avoid failure (Low Naf). With these characteristics, the desire to success far outweighs the fear of failure. High in achievement motivation and referred to as high achievers.
Low need to achieve (Low Nach): This is also associated with a high need to avoid failure (High Naf). With these characteristics the fear of failure far outweighs the desire for success. Low in achievement motivation and referred to as low achievers.
The characteristics of high and low achievement motivation personality traits
What would you expect the characteristics to be of;
1. High Nach Personality characteristics
2. Low Nach personality characteristics
Key Terms
Approach behaviour: Describes behaviour that accepts a challenge
Avoidance behaviour: Describes behaviour that rejects a challenge
Mastery Orientation: The strong motive to succeed found in the high achiever. This type of person will expect to succeed but will persist when failure is experienced.
Learned Helplessness: The belief that failure is inevitable and that the individual has no control over the factors that cause failure.
Applying to sport
Atkinson and McClelland theory is best at predicting behavioural responses in situations where there is a 50/50 chance of success
A high achievement athlete would prefer to be in .... sporting situation
A low achievement athlete would prefer to be in.... sporting situation
Achievement or success can be interpreted in many ways
What drawbacks are there of this theory?
Some performers regards success as victory over other people (ego goal orientated)
Other performers judge on the basis of personal improvement in a task (Task orientation)
The term achievement motivation is a general term and is used to cover achievement in all areas...this has lead to
Sport-Specific achievement motivation (Competitiveness)
This is in relation to the motivation to achieve in sport.
Gill and Deeter (1988) using their own test, the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ), confirmed that the athletes were far more competitive than non-athletes (obvious statement?)
Greater significance should be on athletes favoured performance goals (task) while non-athletes emphasised the importance of winning (ego)
A-level questions
Using practical examples describe the features of a 'need to achieve' performer (4 marks)
Describe two features of a 'need to avoid failure'. How might this performer be encouraged to be more motivated to achieve (4 marks)
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