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Unit 3A- The French Revolution
Transcript of Unit 3A- The French Revolution
France's Political System-
France Prior to 1789
The Absolute Monarch in 1789:
King Louis XVI and Marie Antionette
An Absolute Monarchy
Social Classes were called:
How the ESTATES functioned:
Major Problems of the Old Regime:
1. Did NOT reflect Enlightenment ideas
2. Weak leadership
3. Third Estate was the poorest, yet paid the most taxes!
The Estates General:
An Assembly of all 3 estates to vote on something
Why did Louis XVI hold an ESTATES GENERAL
on May 5, 1789?
Louis needed more $$- they voted to tax the 2nd Estate
The Beginnings of Revolution!!
The 3rd Estate is MAAAAD! They commit the *First Act of Revolution* =
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY on June 20, 1789-
- Legislative group of mostly 3rd estates men,
who wanted to end the absolute monarch, and implement Enlightenment ideas
Tennis Court Oath:
- The NATIONAL ASSEMBLY wanted to meet as a
legitimate legislative body, but were locked out by the King.
- Sooo... they vowed to sit outside on the tennis court until a new Constitution was created :
'The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen' (August, 1789)
FRENCH SOCIETY RESPONDS!!
- The Storming of the Bastille:
A mob of men looking for ammunition stormed
the Bastille, a prison, killing guards and releasing prisoners
Women stormed Versailles palace
because of an increase in bread prices...
Decrease the cost of Bread.
King & Queen must return to Paris (the Capital)
- 3rd estate votes yes...
but is out voted by estates 1 & 2
REVOLUTION BRINGS REFORM
AND TERROR! (Phase 2)
After the King and Queen left Versailles Palace and returned to Paris, the becomes
the official legislative branch in France. They created a new Constitution that called for:
1.) A CONSTITUTIONAL Monarchy
2.) Keep the King, but LIMIT his power... let people
members into the National Assembly
Divisions in the National Assembly:
Group of radicals who wanted a complete END of the monarchy.
Jacobins, Led by MAXIMILIEN ROBESPIERRE, vote to abolish the monarch as France continues to struggle...
** AS A RESULT...**
Louis XVI is accused of treason
and EXECUTED in January 1793!!
Top Jacobin - was voted as the new Ruler of France!
"THE REIGN OF TERROR"
Robespierre's 10 month reign; "enemies" of France WERE EXECUTED
- About people were executed
(A contraption to behead convicts), Including King Louis and Marie Antoinette, and also Olympe DeGouge
** About 85% of those executed
were from the 3rd Estate...**
Think about that...
End of the Reign of Terror:
Out of fear for their own lives,
National Convention members had Robespierre executed.
Enter NAPOLEON BONAPARTE!! (Phase 3)
By 1795, France had changed it's government times!
Napoleon's COUP D'ETAT!
- Nov. 1799, he SEIZED power with his military
- He restored order in France by:
Fair distribution and collection
Schools to train men to be government officials.
Agreement with Pope Pius VII-
it seperated church and state.
UNIFORM CODE OF LAWS; freedoms were somewhat limited, but France began to stabilize!
Napoleon was Crowned Emperor in
Then... the NAPOLEONIC WARS!
Watch out Europe...
- After many successful battles,
these countries signed peace treaties:
2. Russia (later became enemies)
- These countries were FREE from
4. Ottoman Empire
Battle of Trafalgar (1805):
Naval battle between Britain & France- Britain wins and remains free!
The Fall of NAPOLEON!
Napoleon makes THREE major mistakes
The Continental System:
France set British navy began to search &
a BLOCKADE on Britain from the rest of seize ships trading with France
Napoleon invaded Spain
to get to Portugal to enforce the Continental fighters attack System. troops for 6 years!
Battle of Borodino:
Scortched Earth Strategy:
sent 420,000 into Russia when their Russian troops burned everything
alliance broke. in their path to starve the French.
Only 10,000 French survived!
The King of Prussia & Czar Alexander paraded their troops through Paris!
Napoleon agreed to surrender & give
up his throne; he was exiled to Elba
March 1, 1815-
He escapes & returns to France
once again as Emperor!!!!
*This was called the HUNDRED DAYS.
BATTLE OF WATERLOO (June 18, 1815):
The British & Prussians invade France and permanently remove Napoleon from power. He died in exile about 6 years later...
THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA
What was it?
A meeting of all major European powers to establish PEACE after the Napoleonic Wars.
The five "GREAT POWERS" of Europe:
How the Congress of Vienna fixed Europe:
- Balance of Power:
No country can be stronger or
threatening to other European countries.
Restore any Monarchs that were in
power before Napoleonic Wars.
- Concert of Europe:
An alliance of European nations
to help one another if revolution broke out
Lasting effect of the Congress of Vienna
* It established PEACE in Europe for 100 years!!*
The Terms of the settlement were fair& did not
leave any countries MAD
The Life of NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
Type of Government:
Republic- Many governing bodies
He sold a massive amount of territory in
the now central United States to the US
for $15 million
How big was his empire?
France, Italy, Belgium, Holland,
Parts of Prussia, Spain, and more!
July 28, 1794
"Declaration of the Rights of Women and of the Female Citizen"
Equal rights for all citizens, an end to 'Absolute' rule, and stronger humanitarian efforts
The LADIES step in!
What is this??
THE NAPOLEONIC CODE: