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Unit 3A- The French Revolution

Chapter 23
by

Teri Lina

on 13 July 2017

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Transcript of Unit 3A- The French Revolution

The French Revolution
France's Political System-
France Prior to 1789
The Absolute Monarch in 1789:
King Louis XVI and Marie Antionette
An Absolute Monarchy
Social Classes were called:
ESTATES
How the ESTATES functioned:
See Chart...
Major Problems of the Old Regime:
1. Did NOT reflect Enlightenment ideas
2. Weak leadership
3. Third Estate was the poorest, yet paid the most taxes!
The Estates General:
An Assembly of all 3 estates to vote on something
Why did Louis XVI hold an ESTATES GENERAL
on May 5, 1789?
Louis needed more $$- they voted to tax the 2nd Estate
The Beginnings of Revolution!!
(Phase 1)

The 3rd Estate is MAAAAD! They commit the *First Act of Revolution* =
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY on June 20, 1789-
- Legislative group of mostly 3rd estates men,
who wanted to end the absolute monarch, and implement Enlightenment ideas

Tennis Court Oath:
- The NATIONAL ASSEMBLY wanted to meet as a
legitimate legislative body, but were locked out by the King.
- Sooo... they vowed to sit outside on the tennis court until a new Constitution was created :
'The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen' (August, 1789)
FRENCH SOCIETY RESPONDS!!
Result:
- The Storming of the Bastille:

A mob of men looking for ammunition stormed
the Bastille, a prison, killing guards and releasing prisoners
WOMEN'S REVOLT:
Women stormed Versailles palace
because of an increase in bread prices...
2 demands:
1.)

2.)
Decrease the cost of Bread.

King & Queen must return to Paris (the Capital)
Result:
- 3rd estate votes yes...
but is out voted by estates 1 & 2
REVOLUTION BRINGS REFORM
AND TERROR! (Phase 2)

After the King and Queen left Versailles Palace and returned to Paris, the becomes
the official legislative branch in France. They created a new Constitution that called for:
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
1.) A CONSTITUTIONAL Monarchy
2.) Keep the King, but LIMIT his power... let people
ELECT
members into the National Assembly
Divisions in the National Assembly:
- JACOBINS:
Group of radicals who wanted a complete END of the monarchy.
*National Convention-
Jacobins, Led by MAXIMILIEN ROBESPIERRE, vote to abolish the monarch as France continues to struggle...
** AS A RESULT...**







Louis XVI is accused of treason
and EXECUTED in January 1793!!
Maximilien Robespierre
Top Jacobin - was voted as the new Ruler of France!
"THE REIGN OF TERROR"
Robespierre's 10 month reign; "enemies" of France WERE EXECUTED
- About people were executed
by GUILLOTINE:
(A contraption to behead convicts), Including King Louis and Marie Antoinette, and also Olympe DeGouge
40,000
** About 85% of those executed
were from the 3rd Estate...**
Think about that...
End of the Reign of Terror:
Out of fear for their own lives,
National Convention members had Robespierre executed.
Enter NAPOLEON BONAPARTE!! (Phase 3)
By 1795, France had changed it's government times!
3
Napoleon's COUP D'ETAT!
- Nov. 1799, he SEIZED power with his military
- He restored order in France by:
* Taxes:

* Lycees:


* Concordant:
Fair distribution and collection
Schools to train men to be government officials.
Agreement with Pope Pius VII-
it seperated church and state.
UNIFORM CODE OF LAWS; freedoms were somewhat limited, but France began to stabilize!
Napoleon was Crowned Emperor in
1804
Then... the NAPOLEONIC WARS!
Watch out Europe...
- After many successful battles,
these countries signed peace treaties:
1. Austria
2. Russia (later became enemies)
3. Prussia
- These countries were FREE from
Napoleon's control:
1. Britain
2. Portugal
3. Sweden
4. Ottoman Empire
Battle of Trafalgar (1805):
Naval battle between Britain & France- Britain wins and remains free!
The Fall of NAPOLEON!
Napoleon makes THREE major mistakes
Mistake Effect
The Continental System:
France set British navy began to search &
a BLOCKADE on Britain from the rest of seize ships trading with France
Europe
Peninsular War:
Napoleon invaded Spain
Guerillas:
Spanish peasant
to get to Portugal to enforce the Continental fighters attack System. troops for 6 years!
Battle of Borodino:
1812- Napoleon
Scortched Earth Strategy:
The retreating
sent 420,000 into Russia when their Russian troops burned everything
alliance broke. in their path to starve the French.

Only 10,000 French survived!
MARCH 1814-
The King of Prussia & Czar Alexander paraded their troops through Paris!

Result-
Napoleon agreed to surrender & give
up his throne; he was exiled to Elba
BUT WAIT!!!
March 1, 1815-
He escapes & returns to France
once again as Emperor!!!!
*This was called the HUNDRED DAYS.
BATTLE OF WATERLOO (June 18, 1815):
The British & Prussians invade France and permanently remove Napoleon from power. He died in exile about 6 years later...
NOW WHAT???
THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA
What was it?
A meeting of all major European powers to establish PEACE after the Napoleonic Wars.
The five "GREAT POWERS" of Europe:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
GREAT BRITAIN
FRANCE
PRUSSIA
RUSSIA
AUSTRIA
How the Congress of Vienna fixed Europe:
- Balance of Power:
No country can be stronger or
threatening to other European countries.
- Legitimacy:
Restore any Monarchs that were in
power before Napoleonic Wars.
- Concert of Europe:
An alliance of European nations
to help one another if revolution broke out
Lasting effect of the Congress of Vienna
* It established PEACE in Europe for 100 years!!*

The Terms of the settlement were fair& did not
leave any countries MAD
The Life of NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
Type of Government:
Republic- Many governing bodies
working together
His Empire:
Louisiana Purchase:
He sold a massive amount of territory in
the now central United States to the US
for $15 million
How big was his empire?
France, Italy, Belgium, Holland,
Parts of Prussia, Spain, and more!
July 28, 1794
Maximilien Robespierre
Olympe DeGouges:
"Declaration of the Rights of Women and of the Female Citizen"
She Championed:
Equal rights for all citizens, an end to 'Absolute' rule, and stronger humanitarian efforts
The LADIES step in!
What is this??
THE NAPOLEONIC CODE:
Full transcript