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Memory is "The persistence of learning over time through the

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kelly mahler

on 30 November 2017

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Transcript of Memory is "The persistence of learning over time through the

Memories are not always what they seem!

A constructed memory is a created memory.

Elizabeth Loftus & the Misinformation effect

Let's take a stroll Down Memory Lane...
Memory is "The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information."

V. Let's Review!
Model #1 : Memory is like a Computer. It's a Three step process….

Encoding: The processing of information into the memory system.

Storage: The retention of encoded material over time.

Retrieval: The process of getting the information out of memory storage.

Once a memory is
encoded, the brain must hold
on to it for future reference.

Model #2: Attkinson & Shiffrin Model (1968)



We can Encode many different ways...
Visual Encoding
: the encoding of picture images.
Acoustic Encoding
: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words.
Semantic Encoding:
the encoding of meaning.

What stuff is more likely to be encoded? Let's find out!
Primacy Effect

Recency Effect

Serial Positioning Effect

Take out a piece of paper and name all the Presidents…
1. Washington
2. J. Adams
3. Jefferson
4. Madison
5. Monroe
6. J. Q. Adams
7. Jackson
8. Van Buren
9. Harrison
10. Tyler
11. Polk
12. Taylor
13. Fillmore
14. Pierce
15. Buchanan
16. Lincoln
17. A. Johnson
18. Grant
19. Hayes
20. Garfield
21. Arthur
22. Cleveland
23. Harrison

24. Cleveland
25. McKinley
26. T. Roosevelt
27. Taft
28. Wilson
29. Harding
30. Coolidge
31. Hoover
32. F. D. R
33. Truman
34. Eisenhower
35. Kennedy
36. L. Johnson
37. Nixon
38. Ford
39. Carter
40. Reagan
41. Bush
42. Clinton
43. George W. Bush

DO NOT CRAM!!!!!!!!!!!!

Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve

The Spacing Effect also helps us Encode...
…is very brief memory storage following initial
stimulation of a receptor. Either "iconic" for visual
input, or "echoic" for auditory input.

Our senses are able to hold an input for
a fraction of a second before it disappears.
Just long enough for us to decide whether it
is important enough to pay attention to.

1. Sensory….

….is the stuff we encode from sensory memory. It is limited in capacity to about 7 + or - 2 items for about 20 seconds (George Miller).

We recall digits better than letters.
A phone number anyone?

Does not necessarily involve paying close attention.
Ex: “Are you listening to me?!!!”

2. Short-term…

Ways to remember things in STM…so they go to LTM...
: Organizing items into familiar, manageable units.
Mnemonic devices
: memory aids such as "Please Excuse my Dear Aunt Sally"
Maintenance Rehearsal:
repeat it to yourself or out loud.


Try to remember this!



Try again…

Repeat it back to me now
3. Long-term is …..an unlimited
storehouse of information.

is made up of knowledge based and memories (
memories) and memories of your life and personal events (
memory)and require
to put into long-term memory.'

(non-declarative) memories. For example, rules of language, words and meanings (
memory), and skills such as swimming or even fears such as bugs! (known as
memory) and is
stored to long-term.


Flashbulb Memories
: a clear
memory of an emotionally significant
moment or event.

Mood Congruent Memory
the tendency to recall experiences
that are consistent with one’s current
good or bad mood.

State Dependent Memory:
Sometimes we must return to the "state" of mind that we were in during the event to remember the event.
The procedure is quite simple. First, you arrange items into different groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities, that is the next step; other-
wise, you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. In the short run this may not seem important, but complications
can easily arise.

Retrieval Failure:

Retroactive Interference
: new information blocks out old information.

Proactive Interference:
old information blocks out new information
Why didn't you remember
which was the real penny?
This is known as encoding
failure, because you did not
effortfully process what a
penny looks like, meaning you
didn't pay close attention!
Repressed or Constructed Memories of Abuse?

Areas of agreement

Sexual abuse happens

Injustice happens

Forgetting happens

Recovered memories are incomplete

Memories before 3 years are unreliable

Hypnotic memories are unreliable

Memories can be emotionally upsetting

Improving Memory Techniques:

Study repeatedly
Make the material meaningful
Activate retrieval cues
Use mnemonic devices
Minimize interference
Sleep more
Test your own knowledge, both
to rehearse it and to help determine what you do not yet know

Interview a married couple about their
wedding day, but interview them separately!
Review their interviews and write
one paragraph about your findings.
Include any vocabulary from this prezi that
you can! (For example, flashback memory, mood
congruent, episodic, etc.). Post your paragraph to
Edmodo under "Married Couple Interviews". Respond
to at least one other persons comment.
Now write down as much as you can remember about
the paragraph.

The group that was given the context, "Washing Laundry", will have remembered much more than the group that was not, because it was meaningful to them due to the understanding of the context. How does this relate to reading a textbook for a class?
Storage Decay
Sometimes even when we do encode things really well, we will still later forget it. According to the Ebbinghaus studies, the "forgetting curve" occurs. This means that initial forgetting is very rapid, and then levels off with time.

For example, 3 years from now you will forget a lot about this class. however, what you do remember in 3 years, you will remember for 25+ years!
According to Freud, repression is a defense mechanism that banishes from our consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories and buries these memories deep down into the unconscious mind (the wave story).

This does explain how we forget trivial things that can be triggered by a retrieval cue. It does not explain, however, why soldier still remember traumatic events in war that they would like to forget.
Model #3: Modified 3 Stage Model
and the concept of Working Memory
Short-term memory and working memory are different
in the way that short-term really is short! Working memory allows active ideas to be manipulated. Think of it as a "mental workspace"
George Sperling's Sensory Memory Experiment
What Role Does the Brain Play in Processing Memories?
Implicit/Automatic/Non-Declarative Memories (require no conscious recall):
CEREBELLUM- Classically Conditioned memories
BASAL GANGLIA- motor movement and procedural, muscle memory. Helps explain why despite Infantile Amnesia, we still remember how to walk.
Explicit/Effortful/Declarative Memories (require conscious recall):
HIPPOCAMPUS (temporal lobes)- "loading dock" for new memory formation
FRONTAL LOBES-Processes & stores information for working memory
Emotional Memory Formation:
AMYGDALA- Release of stress hormones such as adrenaline (epinephrine) can activate the amygdala to boost creation of vivid memories. We call these "flashbulb" memories.
At the synaptic level, your neurons release SEROTONIN when
you learn something.

This increases the strength of the neural pathway for that
memory. The more you use that pathway, the faster the connection becomes!

This could be the basis for muscle memory! Think about learning
to play an instrument or speak a foreign language.....
Can you name them?
Grouchy, Wishful Nifty
Gabby, Puffy Happy
Fearful, Dumpy Doc
Sleepy, Sneezy Stubby
Smiley, Lazy
Jumpy, Pop
Hopeful, Grumpy
Shy, Bashful
Droopy, Cheerful
Dopey, Teach
Sniffy, Shorty

Can you recognize their names?
Recall Versus Recognition

you must retrieve the information from your memory
fill-in-the blank or essay tests

you must identify the target from possible targets
multiple-choice tests
Full transcript