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~The cavity is for the digestion and transport of nutrients
~the cavity is two cells thick, the inner lining absorbs nutrients, wastes, and gases ~The outer cell lining gets nutrients through diffusion ~branches extend throughout the body to ensure that diffusion occurs throughout the body Open Systems ~ This type of system is used in lager, multicelluar invertebrates.
~Must contain 3 parts: a circulatory fluid, tubes, and a pump ~Found in insects, arthropods, and some molluscs
~Blood and Intestinal fluids are mixed together forming hemolymph
~The heart or hearts (which are usually elongated and located dorsally) pump hemolymph into the sinuses (space around the organs) where chemical exchange occurs ~When the heart contracts hemolymph is transferred into the ostria (pores)
~ ~This process uses less energy than a closed system
~This is beneficial to molting aquatic arthropods which can use this system for support (like a skeleton) Closed Systems ~ In all vertebrates and some invertebrates ~ must also contain fluid (blood), tubes(blood vessels), and a pump (the heart) ~It requires more energy but supplies more blood at faster rates for larger, active organisms with high metabolic rates
~provides higher blood pressure
~This system contains:
~atria: 1or more chambers that receive blood returning to the heart
~Ventricles: 1 or more chambers that pump blood from the heart
~Arteries: carry blood (which is usually oxygenated) from the heart to the organs
~ arterioles: branch from the arteries, found within organs, supply blood to the capillaries
~capillaries: microscopic and porous
~Capillary beds: networks of capillaries that allow for the diffusion of blood and intestinal fluids
~capillaries converge into venules which converge into veins
~Veins usually return blood from the capillaries to the heart, an exception is the hepatic vein
~All arteries carry blood from the heart to the capillaries Campbell, Niel A.Biology.7th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Education, 2005. Print Connection to Respiratory System and Function of the human heart The superior vena cava and inferior vena cava carry O2 poor blood into the right atrium
~It is then sent through the atrioventricular valve to the right ventricle
~The right ventricle sends it through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary trunk
~It then goes into the two pulmonary arteries to the lungs
~ Four Pulmonary veins transport oxygen rich blood to the left atrium
~From the left atrium blood goes to the left ventricle
~From there, blood is sent through the aortic semilunar valve into the aorta and then to the body and tissues
~The capillary beds are responsible for absorbing
O2 and for getting rid of Co2
~Coronary circulation sends blood to the heart ~Not all invertebrates have a circulatory system www.tutorvista.com ~Blood vessels have three layers
~Arteries and veins keep materials from from passing through them; unlike capillaries which are thinner so materials can pass through them.
~The walls of the arteries are made of smooth muscle cells to maintain blood pressure and blood supply Fish ~The blood moves in a single circuit
~The pumping of the heart creates blood pressure
~The blood pressure is reduced after blood passes through the gills
~The heart has two chambers (one ventricular and one atrium)
~Oxygen is picked up during gill circulation
~Blood must pass through two capillary beds which lowers blood pressure and the speed at which the blood travels. This can be increased by the fish's movement. biology-gcse.blogspot.com Amphibians ~Double circulation allows for rigorous blood flow. ~The blood is pumped into the pulmocutaneous circuit which leads to gas exchange ~Three chambered hearts (two atria and one ventricle) sites.google.com Reptiles (not including birds) ~The ventricle is partially divided by a septum which reduces the amount of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood that mix ~Double circulation ~Three chambered heart www.emc.maricopa.edu