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G12 Physics Careers Presentation

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Roy Li

on 27 October 2013

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Transcript of G12 Physics Careers Presentation

Automotive Physics
Vehicle Chassis (Integrated Frame)
Careers Introduction
Overall material technology (weight reduction)
Carbon Fiber:
Alternatively graphite fiber, carbon graphite or CF, is a material consisting of fibers about 5–10 μm in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms. The carbon atoms are bonded together in crystals that are more or less aligned parallel to the long axis of the fiber. The crystal alignment gives the fiber high strength-to-volume ratio (makes it strong for its size). Several thousand carbon fibers are bundled together to form a tow, which may be used by itself or woven into a fabric.
Banked curve Test Track
(Pista di prova di Nardò della Fiat, built in 1975), GPS location 40.326655, 17.827721, is a high speed test track located at more than 20 kilometres (12 mi) north-west of the town of Nardò, Italy, in the southern region of Apulia, in the province of Lecce.
The track is 12.5 kilometres (7.8 mi) long and is round, has four lanes for cars and motorcycles totaling 16 metres (52 ft) in width and has a separate inner ring for trucks at a width of 9 metres (30 ft). In the cars/motorcycle ring the lanes are banked at such a degree that a driver in the outer most lane doesn't need to turn the wheel while driving at speeds of up to 240 km/h (149 mph). In essence, at the so called neutral speed which is different for the four lanes, one can drive as if in a straight lane. However extremely fast cars still require the steering wheel to be turned when going faster than the maximum neutral speed. Many super cars had reached their top speed on the this tracked due to its "unlimited length" of track.
Battery technology on cars
Integrated Frame and Body (Monocoque)
The integrated frame and body type of construction (image) also referred to as unitized construction, combines the frame and body into a single, one-piece structure. This is done by welding the components together, by forming or casting the entire structure as one piece, or by a combination of these techniques. Simply by welding a body to a conventional frame, however, does not constitute an integral frame and body construction. In a truly integrated structure, the entire frame-body unit is treated as a load-carrying member that reacts to all loads experienced by the vehicle-road loads as well as cargo loads.

It is important that the chassis is well designed to balance different types of body motions, keeping the structure of the vehicle strong and rigid .

Performance wise, the chassis has the provide balance of normal force acting on the vehicle's wheels in order to put as much traction on the road to get maximum grip (friction). Better grip means better handling and better power/ acceleration down the road.
Unit involved:
Dynamics (Force and Acceleration)
Career involved:
Automotive Engineer
Test Driver
Computer Software Engineer
Exterior Designer
It is extensively used for automotive chassis and engine applications. Properties like useful strength, low density, high thermal conductivity, excellent machining behavior and good corrosion resistance are the main reasons for using Aluminum. Future Hybrid and Electro automobiles need lightweight designing materials like Aluminum because Batteries are heavy.
Even used since more than 100 Years Aluminum has a high potential. With new production processes Aluminum alloys can pass a strength level of more than 1.000 MPa. A direct substitution of Steels seems to be achievable. New Aluminum-Composites with some unique features will introduce into the domain of Steel.
Weight reduction helps reduce total mass of the vehicle. It gives a greater acceleration with the same amount of energy from the combustion or electric motor.
E = 1/2 * M * V^2
Same amount of energy and less mass, means greater speed, acceleration , torque and better fuel economy.
2012 Lexus LFA tailpipes and rear carbon-fiber diffuser
2013 Mercedes-Benz SL Aluminum Chassis Diagram
Career involved:
Automotive Engineer
Vehicle Builder
Vehicle Designer
Unit involved:
The Nardò Ring
Bugatti Veyron 16.4 super sport achieved a high speed of 267.857 mph (431.074 km/h) at The Nardò Ring in 2010.
("The Caracciola Carousel")
Although being one of the slower corners on the Nürburgring track, the Karussell is perhaps one of its most iconic, one of two berm-style, banked corners. The entrance to the corner is blind, although Juan Manuel Fangio is reputed to have advised a young driver to "aim for the tallest tree," a feature that was also built into the rendering of the circuit in the Gran Turismo 4 and Grand Prix Legends video games. The combination of a recognisable corner, slow-moving cars, and the variation in viewing angle as cars rotate around the banking, means that this is one of the circuit's most popular locations for photographers. It is named for Rudolf Caracciola, who reportedly made the corner his own by hooking the inside tires into a drainage ditch to help his car "hug" the curve. As more concrete was uncovered and more competitors copied him, the trend took hold. At a later reconstruction, the corner was remade with real concrete banking, as it remains to this day.
Caracciola Karussell (Nürburgring)
McLaren MP4-12C accelerating on karussell Nurburgring
A banked curve involves the concept of centripetal acceleration in terms of physics. The raised ramp allows vehicles to stimulate acceleration with a angle of turn. Vehicles often reached their "close to natural" top speed, however the top speed on banked curve is always lower than the theoretical top speed on flat surface. The centripetal acceleration on banked curve will act on the vehicles (especially four wheels vehicles) which force the vehicles to acceleration while turning at all time. To explain with vector components, the acceleration is not always acting on y axis forward but part to the x axis to keep the car on track.

To calculate the Centripetal Force and acceleration,
Ac = v^2 / r
Fc = (m * v^2) / r
Careers involved:
Test Driver
Automotive Engineer
Computer Software Engineer
Track Designer
Units involved:
Centripetal Force
Electricity on cars have been developed from accessories purpose to greener cost to run a vehicle. Different field of researchers have developed different types of batteries to suit different vehicle purpose. There are two main goals to make battery efficient in vehicles.
EV parity

Cost parity
See also: Electric vehicle conversion
The parity means that an electric vehicle does not cost more in the showrooms than a similar vehicle with an internal combustion engine.

Range parity
Driving range parity means than the electric vehicle has the same range than an average all-combustion vehicle (500 kilometers or 310 miles), with 1+ kWh/Kg batteries.
Battery types:

Nickel metal hydride:
Nickel-metal hydride batteries are now considered a relatively mature technology. While less efficient (60–70%) in charging and discharging than even lead-acid, they boast an energy density of 30–80 Wh/kg, far higher than lead-acid. When used properly, nickel-metal hydride batteries can have exceptionally long lives, as has been demonstrated in their use in hybrid cars and surviving NiMH RAV4EVs that still operate well after 100,000 miles (160,000 km) and over a decade of service. Downsides include the poor efficiency, high self-discharge, very finicky charge cycles, and poor performance in cold weather.
The sodium or "zebra" battery uses a molten chloroaluminate (NaAlCl4) sodium as the electrolyte. This chemistry is also occasionally referred to as "hot salt". A relatively mature technology, the Zebra battery boasts an energy density of 120Wh/kg and reasonable series resistance. Since the battery must be heated for use, cold weather doesn't strongly affect its operation except for in increasing heating costs. They have been used in several EVs. Zebras can last for a few thousand charge cycles and are nontoxic. The downsides to the Zebra battery include poor power density (<300 W/kg) and the requirement of having to heat the electrolyte to about 270 °C (520 °F), which wastes some energy and presents difficulties in long-term storage of charge.
Lithium-ion (and similar lithium polymer) batteries, widely known through their use in laptops and consumer electronics, dominate the most recent group of EVs in development. The traditional lithium-ion chemistry involves a lithium cobalt oxide cathode and a graphite anode. This yields cells with an impressive 200+ Wh/kg energy density[5] and good power density, and 80 to 90% charge/discharge efficiency. The downsides of traditional lithium-ion batteries include short cycle lives (hundreds to a few thousand charge cycles) and significant degradation with age. The cathode is also somewhat toxic. Traditional lithium-ion batteries also pose a fire safety risk if punctured or charged improperly.
The development of batteries relate to the physics elements of particles charges and electricity property. The charges of particles are critical to develop a high efficient battery that can store greater amount of electricity. Physicists are involved in the development of electric vehicle to develop greater range capability and longer battery reliability. Therefore, they experiment different materials and particles to build the battery.

Physics concepts that are related:
V = k*q / r
E = kq / r^2
Unit involved:
Electric and Magnetic field.
Career involved:
Auto Mechanics
Physics Researcher
Automotive Designer
Automotive Engineer
Automotive Designer:
It is the profession involved in the development of the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. This most commonly refers to automobiles but also refers to motorcycles, trucks, buses, coaches, and vans. The functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included in automotive engineers. Automotive design in this context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle, though it is also involved in the creation of the product concept. Automotive design is practiced by designers who usually have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transportation design.
Development Engineer:
It is a job function within Automotive Engineering, in which the development engineer has the responsibility for coordinating delivery of the engineering attributes of a complete automobile (bus, car, truck, van, SUV, etc.) as dictated by the automobile manufacturer, governmental regulations, and the customer who buys the product.
Test Driver:
In motorsport, it is common to have one or more test drivers that work with the mechanics to help develop the vehicle by testing new systems on the track. They will point out the imperfection as a driver to help give advices to mechanics, engineer and designer to improve the prototype before launching the car to production.
Automotive Electrician:
This job involves the repair of electrical components, lighting and wiring in vehicles. You will also diagnose problems regarding the vehicles’ electrical control system. Rather than the mechanical parts of the vehicle, you will focus more on the electrical system of the vehicle. This is one of the most in-demand automotive careers.
Parts Interpreter
If the vehicle owners need parts for their vehicles repaired or replaced they will come talking to you. With this career you will deal with people and provide them with a range of services.
Auto Body and Paint Specialists:
Persons who repair the damages on the vehicle are called auto body and paint specialists. These people are in great demand in recent times due to the high incidents of accidents. An auto body technician replaces exterior body parts and repairs damage. Paint technicians apply paint to the vehicle after repairing the damage.
Automotive Technicians:
These people perform numerous tasks rather than just oil changing. Automobile technicians perform tasks such as air filter replacement and other such maintenance related tasks. They may also be hired for balancing wheels, mounting and dismounting wheels, changing brake pads and for performing tune-ups.
Master Mechanics:
Mechanics require more education and experience compared to technicians. Mechanics perform more difficult repair works and may do the tasks of technicians too. A mechanic performs replacement tasks such as replacement of shocks and struts, alternators, drive shaft, and starters. Any person with an automobile school degree may apply for this job.
Automotive Project Engineer:
It is a job of plan and organize technical projects from conception to completion.
Coordinate and communicate between various areas; supervise and train project staff as needed.
Utilize engineering knowledge for project management; estimate timelines and schedules; anticipate risks and costs related to the technical aspects of the project.
If you enjoy assembly line work, working as a factory fabricator might be the choice for you. It's true that machinery plays a key role in the production of today's automobiles, but factories are also full of people doing the jobs machines and computers cannot. Working as a fabricator often requires skill and knowledge of computers, because much of an assembly line process is run by computers. Working in a car factory may also require some shift work, including night shifts, but this sector of the automotive industry is known for its strong unions and excellent benefits.
Embedded software engineers:
It is a job to design, develop, debug and modify embedded software. Engineers design software by analyzing the requirements for an embedded system and determining which requirements have a software component. The software requirements are then translated into software functions which are written by an engineer. Software is written, or coded, by either directly typing or entering the software instructions, or produced by automated software engineering tools that generate software. Embedded software engineers typically work with other engineering disciplines, such as electrical, mechanical and optical, to ensure that the embedded software will accomplish the design goals for a particular product or system.
Physics Researchers:
Physicists are scientists who investigate motion and gravity, the behavior of gases, the structure and behavior of matter, the generation and transfer of energy, and the interaction between matter and energy. They identify basic forces and laws of nature. Theoretical physicists investigate these areas without thought to practical application, concerning themselves with concepts such as the nature of time and the origin of the universe. Other physicists apply their knowledge of physics to practical matters, such as the development of computers, transistors, laser beams, microwave appliances, communications satellites, and a wide variety of other devices. They solve problems in industry, medicine, defense, and other fields.
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