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Chapters 27 and 28
Transcript of Chapters 27 and 28
•4 miles from the Aegean Sea
•Buildings were fancy and had very good architecture Sparta's Geography Farming area
Located on an narrow inland plain
Surrounded by mountains on 3 sides
Buildings were simple compared to those of Athens The People of Athens The People of Sparta Loved to travel
Developed strong relationships with other city-states that stayed strong through trade
Wanted to spread their ideas and learn from others
Talented in art and architecture Were suspicious of outsiders and what ideas they had
They grew on farms most of what they needed but what they couldn't grow they took by force from neighboring city-states
Taught their children to fight and were proud to have fighters rather than thinkers Athens had democracy starting right around 500 B.C. but unlike modern day democracy only free men were allowed to be citizens. That means all Athenian-born men over the age of 18 were considered citizens. Citizenship was not allowed to be given to women and slaves. A group of 500 citizens that were responsible for day to day business were called the Council of 500 met every day. Every year if you were a citizen 30 years or older your name got collected and from those names the Council of 500 was selected. The council was responsible for running daily government business and they suggested new laws. The suggested laws then had to be approved by the Assembly of Athens who met every day on a hill. At least 6,000 citizens had to be at the meeting or they would send slaves with ropes dipped on red paint to gather up more people. Athenian men were said to be embarrassed to sow up at these meetings with red paint on their clothes. The Assembly debated on laws and issues proposed by the council. At the meetings every citizen had the right to speak. Some speakers were more skilled and took longer than others so they started to use a water clock to time how long each person was allowed to speak. A water clock is when you have to cups and they are placed on top of each other. The top cup is filled with water and has a small hole drilled into the bottom. When all of the water has drained through the hole that means their time to speak is up. Most men liked being apart of debates and they were proud of their freedom as Athenian citizens. Athenian Government Athenian Economy The land around Athens wasn't able to supply enough food for everyone so Athens economy was based off of trade. Athens had a good harbor because they are near the sea which allowed them to trade with other city-states and foreign lands to get the goods and natural resources they needed. Goods they received included wood from Italy and grain from Egypt. The things they then gave to those countries include olive oil, honey, beautifully painted pottery, and silver. They bought and sold goods at a huge market place they called an agora. Merchants sold goods form small stands. Some of the foods that could be bought there include onions, olive oil, and lettuce. Household items such as furniture, clay oil lamps, and pottery. Most people made their own clothes but jewelry and leather sandals were popular items at the agora. One last thing was that ar the agora slaves were bought and sold. Like most city-states in ancient Greece they developed their own coin to make all of the trading easier. Some of the metals used were gold, silver, and bronze. On the flat sides they would decorate the coins. One coin had the goddess Athena on it while the other side had Athena's favorite kind of bird, an owl. The democracy of Athens depended on having well-prepared citizens. The Greeks of Athens thought that was produced by having good education. But because only boys could become citizens the boys and girls were taught very differently. They wanted the boys to have a healthy body and an intelligent mind. So physical training and book training were very important. Boys were taught at home by their mothers or male slaves until the age of 6 or 7. They then went to school until they turned 14. Teachers taught reading, literature, arithmetic, and writing. Books were very rare and expensive so they had to read everything out loud and memorize it. To build strength coaches had the boys do gymnastics and wrestling. Music was also taught so each person learned to sing and play a lyre which is a stringed instrument kind of like a harp. At the age of 18 the Athenian men begin military training. After army service if you were a young and wealthy you might study with a private teacher. The private teachers charged high fees for lessons in public speaking and debating which would help them become future political leaders. Unlike boys, most girls never learned to write or read. Instead they grew up helping their mothers with household chores. They were taught how to clean, cook, weave cloth, and spin thread. Some learned ancient secret songs and dances performed at religious festivals. Most girls married around the age of 15. Girls who came from wealthy families had their fathers choose for them but you came from a poor family you often had more of a choice. Athens's Education In Athens only men were considered citizens. Citizenship wasn't available for women and slaves so they had fewer rights than men did.
•Weren't allowed to inherit or own much property.
•Couldn't vote or attend the Assembly.
•Most couldn't choose their own husband.
Few had jobs, the ones that did sold goods in the market or if they were important they were priestesses
Spent days managing the household and raising their children
An Athenian wife had separate rooms
Responsibilities include weaving, spinning, and supervising slaves
Never went out alone
Taught sons until around the ages of 6 or7
Taught daughters until they were 15 and ready to marry
Were many in ancient Athens
Most who weren't poor owned at least one slave
Some were born into slavery
Others were forced into it as captives of war
They did a variety of jobs and some required a lot of skill
Some ran households or taught the children
Many were trained as artisons
Others worked in factories and on farms
In the city they had some slaves work as clerks
Some worked in silver mines, they might have to work 10 hours a day in small tunnels 300 feet underground, with little air to breath
If they stopped to rest they were often punished harshly Athens's Women and Slaves Spartan Government Sparta was an oligarchy. Their government and society was dedicated to military strength. In the 800s B.C.E. Sparta was founded and was known as the leading military power in the Mediterranean area until about 370 B.C.E. Sparta had an assembly made up of male citizens also but the important decisions were made by a group of two kings and 28 other people. This group of people was called the Council of Elders. The two kings inherited their position and shared equal power. The other 28 people were elected by the Assembly. The men had to be at least 60 years old and come from a noble family. Some people believe that the Assembly elected the men by shouting and who ever got the most votes would serve for life. The Council of Elders were the people who held the real power of Sparta. They prepared laws for the Assembly to vote on. If any of the council members didn't like laws that the Assembly passed they had the ability to reject it from becoming a law. The Assembly was large so they met in a large and spacious outdoor area away from the center of the city. They didn't debate issues because they had little power and could only vote yes or no on laws suggested by the Council of Elders. Spartan Economy Sparta's economy was based on farming and other countries. Although Sparta had fertile soil the didn't have enough land to grow food for everybody. If necessary Sparta would make the other countries give up some land and work for them using their army to enforce that they did as told. Spartan men were expected to serve in the army until they were 60 they had to rely on slaves and non citizens to produce the goods it lacked. Citizens from the other country that were captured became slaves called helots. The helots were allowed to live in their villages but had to give most of what they grew to Sparta. The Spartans made good use of the people who were free or the non citizens. If non citizens were needed they were allowed to serve in the army but were not allowed to take part in Sparta's government in any way at all. All non citizens were responsible for making shoes, pottery, red cloaks for the soldiers, and tools such as knives and spears. They were also in charge of the little amount of trade Sparta did with other city-states for items that they could not provide for itself. Sparta only did a little trade because they discouraged trade. The Spartans feared that trade would lead to ideas that would weaken their government. Trading with Sparta was also difficult because of their money system. Most city-states used coins but Sparta used heavy iron bars as money. According to legend a Sparta leader decided to do this to discourage theft because an iron bar wasn't worth all that much and if you wanted to rob some one you would have to take at least a wagon load to make the theft worth it. Also other city-states weren't all that anxious to get iron bars in trade for their goods. Sparta's Education Sparta's purpose of education was to make people capable of serving in the army to protect the city-state. Spartans were likely to leave behind sick infants who would not be able to make good, strong soldiers. At the age of 7 all children in Sparta started training for battle. This included girls also. They learned wrestling, gymnastics, boxing, and foot racing. The boys would live and train in buildings called barracks. They were also taught how to read and write although those were not considered necessary military needs. The most important goal in Sparta was to be a brave soldier.Spartan boys were taught to take any amount of physical pain and weren't allowed to complain about it. They had to march without shoes. They weren't fed, they were even encouraged to steal food as long as they didn't get caught. One legend says that a boy was so hungry he stole a fox but he saw his teacher coming so he hid under his cloak. He let the fox bite him in the stomach instead of getting caught stealing by his teacher. Around the age of 20 Spartan men would be given very difficult test. These test would be used to determine fitness, military ability, and leadership skills. If they passed they became full citizens and Spartan soldiers. Even after that they continued to live in the barracks,where they slept, ate, and trained. A man wasn't allowed to live at home with his children and wife until he was 30 years old. Spartan men could retire from the army once they were 60. Spartan Women and Slaves In Sparta women lived the same simple life as the men. They wore plain clothing with little or no decoration. They didn't wear jewelry or use perfume and make-up. Like the men they were expected to be strong and healthy. Also ready to fight when needed. A wife was to guard her husband's property from invaders and revolts by the slave while he was at war. She was also supposed to look after it and make sure everything was in order. Spartan women had many rights that other Greek women didn't have. They were allowed to speak to their husband's friends and could own and control their own property. Also if their first husband was ever away at war for a very long time they were allowed to remarry. Helots (Spartan slaves) were people that Sparta had taken over. There were more helots than citizens in Sparta. Fearful that the helots would revolt they were treated harshly. Sometimes Sparta's government called war on the helots so any slaves they thought might rebel they could kill legally. The government had once also asked the helots to choose their best fighters because the Spartans said these slaves would be set free after they fought as thanks for helping Sparta fight. The helots chose about 2000 men and these men were instead killed right away to make sure there was no possibility of any helots becoming future leaders. Besides this treatment they did have some rights. They were allowed to marry whoever and whenever they wanted. Also their names could be passed on to their children. After giving their owner their share they were allowed to sell any leftover crops to earn money. They could save up that money and if they could earn enough they were allowed to buy freedom. The End Chapter 28 The Persian Wars The End The ideas or events that influenced this war include that the Persian Empire was in control and it was the common enemy of all the Greek city-states between 499-479 B.C.E.The way that Persia controlled everything was because King Darius had split it up into provinces and gave each one their own tax collection and officials to rule the areas. Most of the Greeks didn't like it so the Persians captives, the Ionians, asked mainland Greek countries for help. So Athens sent some soldiers and a small amount of ships. After the first victory Athens help went away and the Ionians had to keep fighting by themselves. But the Persians took the Ionians down in 493 B.C.E. and to punish them for their act of rebel they destroyed the city of Miletus. After that outburst King Darius was determined to take control of the mainland city-states of Greece. He sent messengers to get Greek earth and water which would say that they had agreed to the Persian rule. None of them would give it to them but instead threw them in wells and pits. After that legend says that they would shout " If you want Greek earth and water, help yourselves." King Darius was furious so he sent about 15,000 soldier on both foot and horse across the Aegean Sea over to Greece. The Persian army gathered on the plain of Marathon which was near the city-state of Athens. A Athenian general named Miltiades convinced the Athenians that they had to go fight them. So the Athenians quickly gathered an army of about 11,000 soldiers. Even though the Athenians were out numbered they beat they Persians because they had better weapons and military strategy. Miltiades gathered the army in a narrow valley and both sides hesitated to attack for many days. Finally, Athens center portion of the army attacked under Miltiades order. As the Persians were coming down to meet them Miltiades ordered the left and right sides up. It didn't take long before the Persians were running back for their boats because they were being attacked on three sides. The Greeks then marched back to defend Athens from the Persians. At that battle the Persians lost about 6,400 soldiers while the Greeks only lost about 192. The Greeks had a stunning victory but this battle also marked the start of the Persian Wars. After King Darius died his son, Xerxes, planned another battle on the Greeks. He gathered a large army of more than180,000 soldiers. To get the soldiers from Persia to Greece King Xerxes chose a long,narrow channel between Europe and Asia known as Hellespont. There he made 2 bridges by roping hundreds of boats together and laying down pieces of wood on the bow of each ship. By doing this his army was able to walk across the channel into Europe. In 480 B.C.E. Xerxes marched west from Hellespont and started south. His forces had overwhelmed many Greek city-states and Athens and Sparta were going work together and try to defeat the Persians. Athens navy would hold off and fight with the Persian navy while Sparta tried to stop the army. The leader of the Spartan army was Leonidas also the Spartan king. The Spartans took their stand at Thermopylae. This was a pace between mountains and the sea. The Spartans only had about 6,000 soldiers but they were doing good stopping the until a Greek traitor told the Persians about a secret passage in the mountains. The path let the Persians surround the Greeks. Leonidas knew that they couldn't stop the Persians now but only delay them. So he told most of the soldiers to escape but the ones that stayed fought until all weapons were broken. Even then they fought with their hands until the death. The Persians one this battle because of the secret passage and now they cold make it to Athens. As news of the defeat at Thermopylae reached Athens the citizens panicked. They boarded ships and sailed for nearby islands. Only a small army of Athenians was left to defend Athens. In a time period of 2 weeks Athens had been burnt to the ground. An Athenian navy leader named Themistocles thought that he knew a way to stop the Persians. He wanted to ambush they in the small channels of water between mainland Greece and the Greek islands. He wanted to do this because the Persians would have a hard time moving their large ships around in the water. But for this to work he need to get the Persians ships into one of the channels so he set a trap. Themistocles sent a loyal servant to Xerxes camp with a message that claimed Themistocles wanted to join the Persian side and that if he wanted to catch the Greeks off guard than now would be the time. Xerxes believed the message and so he sent his army to attack right away. As they started to appear in the narrow channel the Greeks acted as if they were retreating which only made the Persians go deeper into the channel. The Greeks had them surrounded very soon. The Greeks had attached wooden rams to the front of their ships so they used that to sink about 300 Persian ships while the Greeks only lost about 40 ships. The Greeks had defeated the Persians once again because they used their military strategy and knowledge of the coastal features to their best ability. After the defeat Xerxes fled with some of his soldiers. He was afraid of the Greeks crushing the bridges he had built but what he didn't know was that they had already been destroyed by a bad storm so he had to take his men across the water by boat.Xerxes had left the rest of the Persian army in Greece with orders to attack again in the spring. When spring came the Persians advanced Athens again. The Persians thought that Athens would give themselves up since their city was already in ruins but Athens wasn't ready to give up so they joined forces once again with Sparta. This battle took place outside of a town called Plataea. 80,000 troops lead by the Spartans destroyed the Persians. The key factor to this was the team work of alliance from Athens and Sparta. That victory ended the wars and any future threat from the Persian Empire. This victory also had a price for the Greeks to pay, the city of Athens destroyed and all of the Greek lives lost. But, the Greeks would soon rebuild Athens to even greater glory.