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Transcript of political Parties
The Caning of Senator Sumner
Date: May 22, 1865
Congressman Preston S. Brooks of South Carolina beats Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts with his cane after senator Sumner delivered a speech that insulted South Carolina and slavery.
It was called "The Crime Against Kansas." Passions were aroused greatly and the tensions between the North and South increased.
Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
The Free Soil Party
Main author behind this act was senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois. he wanted Nebraska to be a territory, so to win southern support, he proposed a southern state inclined to support slavery which was Kansas.
The Kansas-Nebraska act foreshadowed the civil war mainly because it was a conflict about slavery, and the civil war's largest reason it was fought over was slavery, so the north didn't want slavery while the south did.
This act was perhaps the most impacting event to happen leading up to the Civil War, because it instigated a divide between the North and South about slavery.
Settlers looking to legally own land in Nebraska were unable to because it was not an official territory nor state yet.
In Congress Southern representatives did not want to make Nebraska a territory, because the land laid parallel of the 36 degree 30 parallel which is an area that had just outlawed slavery.
Douglas' biggest desire for this act was to build a transcontinental railroad heading through Chicago.
The Kansas Nebraska Act made it so that each state could act as a popular sovereignty to decide on the issue their support on slavery.
Split the whig party - Southern whigs were swept into the democratic party and and northern whigs the republican party.
Common ground could not be found between either side, thus expediting the path to the civil war.
Election of 1860
This event angered the north
so they made many copies of
his speech and sold them by
the thousands and they gained
many republican votes because
of this. Massachusetts
re-elected him while he was
away getting fixed up.
The South reelected brooks after he
resigned because they were
angry that the north applauded
Sumner's speech so greatly.
The Birth of the Republican Party
The election of 1860 was a pivotal point for the north and south in this era. The events before this one built up the fuel for the fire to come and the ones after kept the fire burning bright all throughout the civil war. This happening then, could be considered the spark of the civil war. During the election of 1860 the common political parties had been split up. In the end Lincoln won the election and before he was inaugurated seven states seceded from the union opening the door to further conflict and in the end, the civil war.
The north won Lincoln the election with little to no help from the south. When they finally finished counting the votes seven states seceded (South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas) making the North angry and setting the stage for the civil war.
upon hearing that Lincoln had been elected many southerners were extremely angered. Seven states pushed for secession before Lincolns inauguration and so the American Civil War was set in motion.
A third issue party made up of former Whigs and democrats (Barn burners) that opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories.
They worked to remove existing laws that discriminated against freed african americans in states like Ohio and believed that free men of free soil comprised a economically superior system than slavery.
The Free Soil Party's main support came from areas of upstate New York, western Massachusetts, and Ohio.
Their slogan Free soil, free speech, free labor, free men attracted small farmers, debtors, and village merchants, who resented the prospect of black-labor whether it was in the slave or free territories.
In the 1848 presidential elections the Free-Soil party managed to poll 10% of the popular vote which contributed to the election of General Zachary Taylor the Whig nominee.
In 1854 the remnants of the party were absorbed into the newly formed Republican Party, carrying on their idea of opposing the expansion of slavery into the west.
The Republican party grew out of the conflicts regarding the expansion of slavery into the new Western territories, Namely the Kansas-Nebraska act.
Called themselves the republicans because they claimed to be descendants of the Democratic-Republican label once used by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
In the 1854 congressional elections 44 Republicans were elected to the House of Representatives and several were elected to the Senate and various state houses.
1855 the republican party controlled a majority of the House of Representatives.
The Republicans rapidly gained supporters in the North, and in 1856 their first presidential candidate, John C. Fremont, won 11 of the 16 Northern states.
The Party had almost no presence in the South, but by 1858 in the North it had enlisted former Whigs and former Free Soil Democrats to form majorities in nearly every Northern state.
In 1860 Abraham Lincoln a republican runs against John C. Breckinridge, and Stephen A. Douglas (Democrats) and John Bell (Constitutional Union) and becomes president, this victory for Lincoln signals the secession of the Southern states.
Opened Kansas and Nebraska to slavery (in orange) This had been prevented by Missouri Compromise since 1820.
The Liberty Party
Fist officially created at the national convention at New York in 1840. The Liberty Party was a rather radical anti-slavery group. Its members consisted of followers of William Lloyd Garrison and other conservative groups. Their one goal was to completely abolish slavery. During the election of 1844 they nominated candidates James Birney and Francis Lemoyne as a third party. They received a modest amount of votes. While not enough to get their own candidates into office the difference was enough to push the election in favor of James Polk. Later in its life the Liberty Party encouraged voters to vote for the more popular Free Soil Party instead.
Rob part 2
While many people in the North supported the anti-slavery goal of the liberty party, they became divided over issues such as women's rights while the party was alive.
While early abolitionist societies began forming Southern states began issuing gag orders on the issue. While many Southerners supported the institution of slavery, there was still a small minority of abolitionists.
The Know Nothing Party
AKA the American Party
Created in 1849 the Know Nothing
Party opposed immigrants and Catholics from entering America. The group disliked immigrants because they offered competition against born Americans for jobs. They feared that Catholics were more loyal to the Pope than the US. The group later lost popularity in the early 1860s because they failed to take a stance on slavery. When people in the party were asked about their political preference they replied " I know nothing"
Most of this group's members were in the North. It was popular because Americans were frequently competing with immigrants for jobs.
The Know Nothing party had the vast majority of its members in the North. It addressed a uniquely Northern issue and this party had little impact on the South.