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Health Behaviours of young people 3

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Anthony Neville

on 13 February 2014

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Transcript of Health Behaviours of young people 3

Sun Protection
Sexual and Reproductive Health
Consequences of risky behaviours

Unwanted pregnancy
Sexually transmitted infections
Cervical cancer
Illicit Drugs
the percentage of people who use illicit drugs is far less than that which uses legal drugs
Cannabis the most common illegal drug (33%)
9% had tried amphetamines or meth
7% had tried ecstasy
Mental Health
Substance Abuse
Alcohol

90% of 12-17yr olds reporting having consumed alcohol at some stage
Health Behaviours of Young People
Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world
Most prevalent cancer among 12-24 year olds
1 in 3 people consistently wear a hat and apply sun screen

Tobacco
Sharp declines in 12-15 year olds, but 11% of 16 and 17 year olds remain committed smokers
BOYS 32%

Girls 23%
What proportion of boys and girls had tried illicit drugs?
Mental illness contributes more to the burden of disease of 15-24 year olds than ANY other health condition.
About 70% of deaths from mental illness are drug related.
Sharp decline in these deaths due to reduced availability of heroin.
Mental Health (cont'd)
SUICIDE
Accounts for the 2nd highest number of deaths among young people. (20%) of all 12-24 year old deaths.
Rates have been declining for males and relatively stable for females.
Causes include mental illness, rmful drug use and a family history of suicide or self-harm are the main contributing factors.
Risk is far greater if more than one of these factors is present.
Young people need...
necessary information
skills
family support
access to health services
Age of consent is 16 years in NSW though a range of views exist regarding what is appropriate, safe and acceptable regarding young people
A majority of student in year 10 reported that they had engaged in sexual behaviour(not intercourse)

About 1 in 4 year 10 students reported having intercourse
About 1 in 2 year 12 students reported having intercourse
1 in 3 of sexually active school students had more than 1 sexual partner
Over 90% reported being attracted to the opposite sex, 1% both sex attracted and 5% same sex attracted
90% reported using contraception
5% use withdrawal method

ROAD SAFETY
Overview
The RTA reports that in 2007 there were 445 fatalities - the lowest loss of life since 2002
Fatalities have been reduced every year for 5 years despite more traffic
20% of ALL drivers involved in fatal crashes were 17-25 years old
More than 1 in 4 speeding fatalities came from 17-25 age group
50% of fatal crashes on Thursday, Friday or Saturday night were caused by alcohol use
WEEKEND MAYHEM
Major contributors to these accidents
alcohol
speeding
risk taking
showing off
poor driving skills
We Must Challenge the accuracy of societies perceptions of the health behaviours of young people.
At times via print media and television we might listen to people lamenting that the health behaviours of young people today are far worse than previous generations
NOT TRUE
In fact, young people
today
have
better
health than previous generations across a range of areas.
Protective behaviours and risk behaviours
A small amount of risky behaviours contribute to much of the burden of disease experienced by young people.

Similarly, a small number of protective behaviours contribute to their good health
Food Habits
Weight Control
Body Image
physical activity
Drug use
mental health
sexual health
Road Safety
FOOD HABITS
The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating recommends that 12-18 year olds should eat
7200-13500
kilojoules a day
The Risk Behvaiours associated with nutrition include
Excess fat
Excess sugar
Excess salt
Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents
See pg 24 of text
The biggest concern in recent times is the over consumption of foods leading to higher levels of obesity and heart disease
Weight Control and Body Image
Why do we become overweight?
Lack of physical activity
High Fat Diet
Excessive kilojoule diet
Supportive behaviours that help people control their weight
Social networks sensitive to the needs of the individuals
Access to suitable facilities
Positive self esteem and confidence
BODY IMAGE
This has a strong mental health link.
Perfectionists
High achievers
media images don't help this problem
Many young people develop a negative image about their body
Who's MOST vulnerable?
unrealistic pressure to lose weight
Risk Behaviours include
Obsessively monitoring one's weight
Missing meals
bingeing
purging
Compulsive exercise patterns
Supportive behaviours include
realistic expectations about...
self image
personal achievement
diet
exercise
To protect against eating disorders
Confidence
Diversity
Strong social networks
We need activites that support....
Self acceptance
Physical Activity
National Physical activity guidelines
Children and young people =
60

minutes
exercise daily MODERATE TO VIGOROUS INTENSITY
No more than
2 Hours
a day on electronic media
60 Minutes
No More than 2 Hours
DAILY
Risks for those who live a sedentary lifestyle
Obesity
Heart Disease
Respiratory Disease
Problems for obese young people trying to exercise
insecurity
embarrassment
Protective Factors to assist
Family attitudes
Routines
Skills
Obesity problems
Alcohol For teenagers 'never safe'
The evidence discovered from the research suggests..
Teenagers that had small amounts of alcohol were
MUCH more likely
to engage in risky sexual behaviour, social problems, assaults etc
There was
NO safe level
of alcohol consumption found in this age group.
By far the least likely to develop alcohol dependence were the teens who
OBSTAINED COMPLETELY
from alcohol
This raises questions about whether we should raise the legal drinking age to 21 - a bit like the USA has.
The results
disprove
the theory that we should let teens drink at safe levels and use a harm minimisation approach
ZERO ALCOHOL POLICY
Drug Use
Drugs will be harmful depending on....
How they are used
the characteristics of the user
the nature of the using environment
Types of Drugs
legal
illegal
medicinal
Social
Risk Factors for Drug Use
parents and siblings who encourage drug use and misuse
lack of supervision and boundaries
availability of drugs
peer influence to use
Protective Factors
Supportive family that sets clear boundaries
open discussion about responsible drug use
peer influence not to use
restricted availability of drugs
involvement in other activities like sport and community activities
Developing knowledge about drugs ie: standard drink sizes
Mental Health
Anxiety
Depression
2 most common problems?
Risk Factors
Maternal drug use (mother)
Early behavioural or emotional problems
Early exposure to drug use.
Drug use by the individual is the most prevalent factor associated with the development of a mental illness
Exposure to violence
family breakdown
neglect
homelessness
Family history
Protective factors
Cohesive and supportive family relationships
Connectedness with peers and social networks
satisfactory achievement levels at school
Stress management strategies
www.beyondblue.org.au
Sexual Health
What influences how we feel about sex?
Family
Religion
Culture
Relationships must be based on...
RESPECT
!

Tips for making your partner feel safe...
Have fun together
be themselves
share and express different opinions
listen to each other
compromise, say sorry and talk arguments out
spend time alone
Sex is meant to be...
something that makes both partners feel good
something that both partners should be able to interrupt at any time
completely safe from unwanted pregnancy or STI infection
Sex should NOT be...
the only way an individual can show that they love someone.
something an individual feels pressured or forced into.
Something an individual does because 'everyone else is doing it'.
Something that makes a person feel used.
Sexual Behaviour Risks
1.Early age of first sexual experience
2. Number of partners
3. Perceived peer pressure to be sexually active
4. Same sex attraction
PROTECTIVE BEHAVIOURS AND RISK BEHAVIOURS
FOOD HABITS
SEXUAL HEALTH
WEIGHT CONTROL
BODY IMAGE
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
ROAD SAFETY
DRUG USE
MENTAL HEALTH
The positive Health Status of Young People
For Australian youth, the transition to adulthood is made more complex by the social,economic, environmental and technological changes to Australian Society over recent decades.

Compared with previous generations, young people have fewer siblings and more commonly live in single parent families with both parents in the workforce.
The Positive Health Status of Young People
The pathways from education to work are more varied and complex and often extend over longer periods together with decreased job security this means that young people often live in the parental home for longer.
Life expectancy has increased.
A boy born in 2003 would be expected to live 78.1 years
A girl on average would live 83 years
The Positive Health Status of Young People
LIFE EXPECTANCY
The Positive Health Status of Young People

Death rates among young people aged 12-24 decreased by 50% due to a large decrease in deaths relating to injury including poisioning
Suicide and transport accident deaths decreased by 40 % and 35% respectively
Also a decrease in deaths due to drug dependence disorder: from 142 in 1997 to 3 in 2004
DEATH RATES
The positive health status of young people
Causes of the burden of disease for young
males
are...
Anxiety and depression 17%
Road Traffic accidents
Schizophrenia
Suicide
Causes of the burden of disease for young
females
are...
Anxiety and depression 32%
Asthma and migraines
Diseases affecting genital andd urinary organs
Cancer is the 6th leading cause of burden for young people (15-24yrs). Rate of malama Decreased by 23% in males 14% in females
Y
oung people are less likely to suffer from a severe disability
Asthma has declined from 16% to 13% but is higher among the rest of the population
Overall decrease in HIV notification rates since 1995, however a slight upward trend in recent years
The positive health status of young people
Most Year 7 students met the national benchmarks for reading, writing and numeracy (91%, 94% and 82%) in 2004. The apparent retention rate to Year 12 has increased substantially from 49% in 1986 to 75% in 2006
Young people aged 15-24 YEARS accounted for 8% of the total disease and injury burden in 2003
60% of 12 year olds and 40% of 15 year olds were free from tooth decay in 2001
Protective Behaviours and Risk Behaviours
The Positive Health Status of Young People
ICE
Speed
Cocaine
Marijuana
LSD
Ecstasy
Heroin
Alcohol and the Brain
Full transcript