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Transcript of Instructional Text
A step by step guide explaining how to do or make something through a process of sequenced steps
to achieve a successful outcome.
Instructions can be spoken or written.
Instructional texts usually contain:
The language features you will need:
To enable users to complete a task
To tell users the following:
How to do something
Why to do it
What materials and equipment are necessary
Where to begin
What to do next
How to recover from something gone wrong
By Danni Mitchell, Lucy Ellis and Katie Hamilton
A statement of what is to be achieved,
define the goal or desired outcome
Diagrams and illustrations are often integral
and may take the place of some text
A series of simple sequenced steps to
achieve the stated goal
Resource list, a list of materials/equipment
needed to achieve the goal.
Cut, Chop, Slice, Paint, Bake, Mix, Grate, Spread, Weigh, Saw
First, Next, After that, Finally, Then
Knowledge for the writer
Title – clear goal to clarify what the instructions are about.
Use short, clear sentences.
Avoid unnecessary adverbs or adjectives.
Decide who the instructions are for. If the text is written in second person, then the instructions are talking directly to someone.
If the instructions are written using passive sentences, then they could be for anyone.
How to make an origami swan.
Pour in a sauce of your choice.
Pour in a selected sauce .
This will help to keep the sentences short and concise.
Knowledge for the writer
Decide what order is needed to complete the intentional goal.
Select the essential points you need to include at each stage.
Present the instructions clearly.
Grab the reader’s interest and enthusiasm.
Re- read instructions.
Instructional texts can be used within other text types.
Formal or informal text
Type up their own instructions.
Research existing instructions and compare.
Design and make a ...... then write the instructions to coincide.
Write instructions to complete an investigation they have previous done.
Design and make a mathematics game and write rules to go alongside them.
Could link to positional language, giving instructions to the Bee Bot.
Children could generate their own set of instructions for a sequence/routine.
Could write instructions of how to be a good friend.
Could identify some directions/instructions of how to get to the shops from school.
Cross Curricular Links
These instructions are for...
Write the steps
Speaking and listening
preceding reading and writing.
Study examples of
Teacher modeling and scribing
preceding children individual
Independent production of
Ability to evaluate instructional texts and their own work.
Increasing understanding of the form and features of instructional writing (shared/guided writing).
Planning own instructional
text using a writing skeleton.
Now try to mark this child’s piece of work using the APP grids.
Use highlighters to identify areas they have achieved.
Find a best fit to inform what level they could be.
How to make a potion.
1. Put the oil in the pan.
2. Heat up the oil
3. Put the cook in the pan.
4. Listen to the potion popping
5. Stir it
6. Eat and enjoy
Mark – Year 1 – Low level 1
Mark uses simple sentences constructed on the same pattern, but appropriate for the genre (indication of AF5 L1 b1).
Apart from some omitted words and phrases, clause structure is mostly grammatically accurate, with one full stop in place (AF6 L1 b1 and b2).
The instructions have an overall organisation, with a heading, numbers, illustrations and mainly consistent spaces between each step (AF3 L1 b1 and b2).
Internal cohesion of the text is difficult to assess due to poor legibility. Key words are repeated, for example 'pan', 'potion' and 'put' and 'it', and consistently referred to (AF4 L1 b1).
Mark gives basic information about how to make the potion (AF1 L1 b1).
The writing shows the use of basic features of instructions (AF2 L1 b1).
Words are simple and repeated (AF7 L1 b1 and b2).
Mark spells a few simple and high-frequency words correctly, for example 'the', 'pan', 'in', and makes some phonetically plausible attempts at others, for example 'put' and 'next'. However, his spelling does not yet meet the criteria for AF8 L1 (AF8 below level 1).
Mark is using some finger spaces to distinguish words, and while letter formation is improving, for example, 't', 'h', 'o', 'a', 'e', inconsistent orientation and use of upper and lower case makes the work hard to read (Handwriting and presentation below level 1).
James – Year 1 – High level 2
If you would like to make a...
Measure carefully. Quickly stir
Do not move until dry.
The writing fulfills the main purpose of instructing the reader about decorating and hanging a Christmas bauble. The form and style used are appropriate in this short piece of writing (AF2 L4 b3).
However, the second instruction ‘carefully glue patterns’ is unclear and the list of ‘what you will need’ omits mention of the string (AF2 L3 b1 b2).
The vocabulary is generally appropriate, with use of precise verbs (‘fetch’, ‘roll’, ‘glue’,‘get’) and some adjectives and adverbs that clarify meaning (‘gluey’, ‘carefully’,‘sensibly’) (AF7 L3 b1 b2, AF1 L3 b2).
The two subheadings support the layout (AF3 L3 b1) and Kylie attempts to sequence the instructions logically.
After the teacher reminded children to check their work, Kylie reversed the order of 5 and 6 with arrows (AF3 L3 b3).
As appropriate for this task, clarity in the use of predictable sentence types is maintained with minimal variation (AF5 L4 b1 b2).
Imperative and modal verbs are consistently used (AF5 L4 b3).
Demarcation of sentences is accurate, adopting theconventions of lower case and minimal punctuation in bullet pointed lists (AF6 L4 b1).Overall the writing is more typical of high level 3 performance.
Repeated use of imperative verbs appropriate for succinct instructions (AF5 L2 b2 and b3).
Grammatically correct clauses punctuated as sentences accurately demarcated with full stops. After a reminder, James was able to proofread his work to change lower case to capital letters (AF6 L2 b1 and b2).
The instructions have a title and a logical end point (‘Eat your sandwich’). Numbering is used to organise and list ideas into an appropriate, workable sequence (AF3 L2 b1 and b2).
Links between instructions are clear through the repeated references to ‘bread’, ‘cheese’, ‘sandwich’ (AF4 L2 b1).
The writing is clear and to the point, without elaboration (AF1 L2 b1).
Reference to ‘your sandwich’ and the instruction (invitation?) ‘Cut your sandwich into whatever shape you like’, suggests some reader awareness in an otherwise straightforward set of instructions (AF2 L3 b1, b2 and b3).
Simple vocabulary appropriate for task with some variation, e.g. ‘slice of bread’/‘piece of bread’ (AF7 L3 b1).
Clear letter formation with ascenders and descenders distinguished (Handwriting and presentation L2 b2).
Kylie - High Level 3 writing - Overall Low Level 4
Listen to and follow single instructions, and then a series of two and three instructions.
Give oral instructions when playing.
Read and follow simple classroom instructions on labels with additional pictures or symbols.
Attempt to write instructions on labels, for instance in role play area
Listen to and follow a single more detailed instruction and a longer series of instructions.
Think out and give clear single oral instructions.
Routinely read and follow written classroom labels carrying instructions.
Read and follow short series of instructions in shared context.
Contribute to class composition of instructions with teacher scribing.
Write two consecutive instructions independently.
Listen to and follow a series of more complex instructions.
Give clear oral instructions to members of a group.
Read and follow simple sets of instructions such as recipes, plans, constructions which include diagrams.
Analyse some instructional texts and note their function, form and typical language features: statement of purpose, list of materials or ingredients, sequential steps, direct/imperative language,
As part of a group with the teacher, compose a set of instructions with additional diagrams.
Write simple instructions independently e.g. getting to school, playing a game
Read and follow instructions.
Give clear oral instructions to members of a group.
Read and compare examples of instructional text, evaluating their effectiveness.
Analyse more complicated instructions and identify organisational devices which make them easier to follow, e.g. lists, numbered, bulleted points, diagrams with arrows, keys.
Research a particular area ( e.g. playground games) and work in small groups to prepare a set of oral instructions. Try out with other children, giving instruction and listening and following theirs.
Evaluate effectiveness of instructions.
Write clear written instructions using correct register and devices to aid the reader.
In group work, give clear oral instructions to achieve the completion of a common task. Follow oral instructions of increased complexity.
Evaluate sets of instructions (including attempting to follow some of them) for purpose, organisation and layout, clarity and usefulness.
Identify sets of instructions which are for more complex procedures, or are combined with other text types (e.g. some recipes).Compare these in terms of audience/purpose and form (structure and language features).
Write a set of instructions (using appropriate form and features) and test them out on other people, revise and try them out again.
Choose the appropriate form of writing and style to suit a specific purpose and audience drawing on knowledge of different nonfiction text types.
Use the language conventions and grammatical features of the different types of text as appropriate
Imperative (bossy) verbs
May include time connectives
May include negative commands
Adverbs & adjectives (when needed)