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World War I
Transcript of World War I
Originally between Triple Entente (UK, France, Russia)
and the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy)
Involved most of the known world
More than 9 million killed
shifted military thinking
Led to defeat and humiliation of the German people
Also led to a preference to anti-war isolationist thinking Sources worldwar1.com projects.oucs.ox.ac.uk British MG in anti-Phosgene masks http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/woodrow_wilson1.htm Woodrow Wilson Delivering 14 Points to Joint Session of Congress in 1918 http://connect.umpi.maine.edu/~terry.chalou/Webquests/07-08/World%20War%20I/task.htm Chain Gangs and Passed Bucks: Predicting Alliance Patterns in Multipolarity Buck Passing A state relies on others to sustain the alliance
Defense is thought to have advantage
This attitude led to the appeasement prior to WWII Why Offense? Chain Ganging When one state remains in alliance with another for a feeling of security, even if the other state is becoming reckless.
Occurs most often in multipolar systems
More vulnerable states want to align themselves with others, regardless of the potential risks Offers many incentives for the aggressor's military
Increased military autonomy,
Officers are trained in pre-emptive strikes,
Offensive tactics allow for greater resources provided to the military Offense on an International Scale Currently occurs when an aggressor state feels threatened
Occurs much more rarely for the prime reason of expansion
Nuclear weapons favored as forms of MAD, ultimate offense that doubles as defense awesome-robo.com 1914 Revisited: Allies, Offense, and Instability Can anyone think of examples of Chain Ganging? A Couple More Questions Do you think that the US has favored an offensive strategy?
Has it been for the same reasons as listed earlier?
Do you think that this is appropriate action by the US? July Crisis Critical Factors in July Crisis
Inability of Russians to mobilize quickly
Lack of permanent Belgium troops at Liege
Uncertainty of British troops to intervene if Germany attacked France Thomas J. Christenson & Jack Snyder Scott Sagan 1. No more secret agreements ("Open covenants openly arrived at").
2. Free navigation of all seas.
3. An end to all economic barriers between countries.
4. Countries to reduce weapon numbers.
5. All decisions regarding the colonies should be impartial
14. A League of Nations should be set up to guarantee the political and territorial independence of all states. Which three points seem most important?
Do you think that the league of nations would have been an effective organization had the US joined it? Do you think that Congress made the right decision in avoiding participation? REACTIONS Nick's Reactions Offense is the best defense
Nuclear weapons have created the best offensive-defensive weapon Morgan's Reactions Surprising that in the July Crisis offensive military tactics were used with primarily defensive weapons. Felt the League of Nations to be the most important out of Wilson's points
Using nuclear weapons more as counter-nuclear weapons
US must avoid cult of offensive Felt that Wilson's "open covenant" point was the most important of his 14 Points The Broader Points Causes a "spiral into war"
Alliances make smaller issues larger
If an ally isn't protected the greater alliance may fall Effects on Conficts Effects on Conflicts Encourages the chance of piecemeal aggression
Attackers will target the weaker nation Cult of the Offensive Needed to provide support for allies
Overlooks key points
When war is likely striking the first blow is advantageous