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EDF 525 Timeline: Then & Now

Provide a visual of how the events and practices of the past have influenced and constructed the events and practices of the present in US public schools and policies.

Kurt Love

on 17 May 2014

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Transcript of EDF 525 Timeline: Then & Now

New York House of Refuge, 1832
Founded in 1824, The New York House of Refuge was a reformatory created for the "wayward youth" of society. (Boston followed suit in 1826, and Philadelphia in 1828.) The projected goal of these institutions was to correct the problems caused by the perceived failure of parental guidance and lack of governance in the home.
{submitted by Christine Walsh}
In 1744, Indians were offered scholarships to William & Mary. Ben Franklin recorded their reply in "Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America." According to Carolyn Merchant, who reprinted the document in Ecological Revolutions, Franklin argued that European science and education were superior to Indians' "art of conversation," which suggests to me that he didn't understand the Indians' sarcasm.

We are convinced... that you mean to do us good by your proposal, and we thank you heartily. But you, who are wise, must know that different nations have different conceptions of things; and you will therefore not take it amiss if our ideas of this kind of education happen not to be the same with yours. We have had some experience of it: several of our young people were formerly brought up at the colleges of the northern provinces; they wee instructed in all your sciences; but when they came back to us they were bad runners; ignorant of every means of living in the woods; unable to bear either cold or hunger; knew neither how to build cabin, take a deer, or kill an enemy; spoke our language imperfectly, and were therefore neither fit for hunters, warriors, or counselors; they were totally good for nothing. We are, however, not the less obliged by your kind offer, tho' we decline accepting it; and, to show our grateful sense f it,if the gentlemen of Virginia will send us a dozen of their sons, we will take great care of their education, instruct the in all we know, and make men of them.
Brown vs. Board of Education 1954

Claimed that separate but equal schools were unconstitutional. Though it helped facilitate change it did not fully accomplish desegregation of schools.
(Rachel Eleiott
Carlisle Indian Industrial School

Carlisle Indian School was developed to assimilate Native American children from their tribal way of life to Anglo-American way of life. According to Captain Richard A. Pratt the purpose was to,
"Kill the Indian in him, and save the man…It is a great mistake to think that the Indian is born an inevitable savage."
(Rachel Eleiott)
Sheff vs. O'Neil
State of Connecticut has an obligation to provide school children with equal educational opportunity.
(Rachel Eleiott
For a visual representation of the outcomes of Sheff vs. O'Neil visit

The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 (informally known as the GI Bill) was a movement put forth by the government during WWII to allow for Veterans coming home from war to have a more fluid transition back into civilian society. This bill provided tuition, books, supplies, and counseling services for veterans who wished to continue their education in school or in college. It helped provide over 8 millions veterans with educational benefits over the next 7 years. Through this act, $14.5 billion dollars were dispersed to veterans to go back to school or receive on the job training.
(Posted by Anthony Turgeon)

Noah Webster
Born in West Hartford, Connecticut in 1758, Noah Webster crafted a series of textbooks between 1783-1784 that would fundamentally transform instructional education in the classroom. The first was a spelling book, A
Grammatical Institute of the English Language
. The second was a grammar book and the third was a reader. He used these books to not only instill the basics of reading and writing, but also used them as a platform to instill a sense of "American" patriotism. He introduced the
Federal Catechism
in early versions of his spelling book in an attempt to maintain the republican structure of the country and dissuade the notion of a democracy.
{submitted by Christine Walsh}
Nick News: "Black, White, and Brown V. Board of Education: A Return to Segregated Schools?"

"Even 60 years after the court ruling many black kids continue to lack equal access to high quality education. We will find kids fighting against the slide back into inequality and hear what they have to say to the rest of us."

The link below will take you to the video, which includes interviews of two CREC students!

McGuffey's Eclectic Readers

"Before McGuffey, the schoolbook which had educated generations of American youth had been the old New England Primer. Reflecting the stern Calvinism of colonial times, it began the teaching of the alphabet with "A is for Adam" and followed with a sobering couplet: "In Adam's fall, we sinned all." It closed with a funereal poem: "Give ear my children to my words / Build not your house too high. / But always have before your eye, / That you were born to die." From the experiences of his front-porch laboratory school, with lessons crafted at an eight-sided homemade desk, the top of which could be revolved about a pedestal base enabling efficient use of multiple compartments and drawers, McGuffey from 1834 to 1836 wrote the books that were destined to shape American history."

from: http://www.units.miamioh.edu/mcguffeymuseum/learn_more/readers.html
Creation of First Charter School
Minnesota was the first state to pass legislation to start the first charter school. Charter schools are independent public schools that run separate from the district school boards. They are created by community members, parents, teachers, etc with a specific principle or mission statement that guides their school. Charter schools focus on accountability over abiding by state and district initiatives giving them more autonomy. Achievement first is an example of a charter school here in Connecticut in 2006.
(Rachel Eleiott)
Little Rock 9
Little Rock 9 refers to 9 African American students who tried to integrate Central High School in Little Rock Arkansas. Met by resistance from not only students, but the Mayor Orval Faubus intercepted the students from attending school using the National Guard. With the help of the media, NAACP, Daisy Bates, and reluctant Eisenhower the students were able to integrate. This showed the nation that just because legislation had passed it did not mean equality for African Americans in education. This was just the beginning of a fight that would continue to present day.
(Rachel Eleiott)

“Students Say Standardized Tests Kill Learning"
Feb. 10th 2014
Parents, students, and even teachers have been speaking out and often times opting out of taking standardized tests. In the case of this article New Haven youth spoke out about the CAPT tests that take away from their education because they are so focused on mastering the test. The forum was called "New Haven Youth Speak: High(er)-Stakes Testing & The Wellbeing of Youth." sponsored by CCSU to address the shortcomings of standardized tests. This movement is gaining publicity and support as Connecticut begins it's new set of tests that align with the Common Core.
See full article at http://www.newhavenindependent.org/index.php/archives/entry/community_meeting_raises_concerns_on_testing/
(Rachel Eleiott)

Pertaining to our discussions on education and the world:
"Why Arne Duncan's PISA Comments Miss the Mark,"
Education Week
, January 6, 2014 http://edweek.org/ew/articles/2014/01/08/15weintraub.h33.html?tkn=TVMFFDcF18R2GoBf6mNQHIXzRbD2Qtx6QnuF&cmp=clp-edweek
"The only thing that interferes with my learning is my education."
Einstein said this about education during his time as one of the brightest minds in the world. Maybe he was hinting at something that we would come to examine in the future; the idea that schools are there to mold people into workers, and not really to teach them and allow them to learn as they should.
(Anthony Turgeon)
Horace Mann (1796-1859)
A member of the Massachusetts house of Representatives and secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, Horace Mann is best known as the "Father of the Common School Movement." Today, we see common schools as public schools. Mann's ideals in the 1800's, which included public education for all and "equalizing the conditions of men" are still in use today. Mann's ideas in the school systems of Massachusetts spread out to cross state boarders and lead to the basis for what we see public schools as today.
(Anthony Turgeon)
"Into The West" miniseries
Dramatization of the Indians' beginnings at the Carlisle Industrial School. Here is shown a very brief view of the acculturation process of stripping the Indian of his/her cultural identity through dress, name change and cutting of the hair.
{submitted by Christine Walsh}
The Carlisle Arrow and Red Man
, school publication
In addition to religious instruction and basic academic disciplines such as English, math, history and composition, students also had "industrial training" incorporated into their curriculum. They were introduced to farming, manufacturing and domestic chores. This publication, circa 1918, was one example of the work that was produced by the students as preparation for the work they would encounter in the larger economic world. {submitted by Christine Walsh}
Prudence Crandall (1803-1890)
In 1831 Crandall opened a private girls academy in Canterbury, CT where she taught the daughters of the town's wealthiest families. In 1833 she admitted an African American named Sarah Harris who aspired to be a teacher for African American children. The townspeople were furious and demanded that Harris be expelled which prompted Ms. Crandall to open a new school just for African American girls. Months later the town enacted the "Black Law" which made it illegal to teach African Americans from any other state than Connecticut. Prudence Crandall was arrested and tried twice ending in a conviction that was later overturned. She continued to teach in her school which drove the town into a fury and eventually lead to a mob attack on the school. She decided to close the school out of fear for her students' safety. Picture and content courtesy of the National Women's History Museum {Submitted by Christine Walsh}

Engel v. Vitale
This landmark supreme court case made it unconstitutional for state schools
to compose an official school prayer and press it upon its students to be recited. This was the first major case to attack the presence of student or school led prayer in the public school system.
(Anthony Turgeon)
Franz Boas

"Father of American Anthropology"

Lead the way to help change how the concept of race was taught in American schools.

1776: National History Day
The link below highlights myths of the history of our country, including Jefferson.
http://news.yahoo.com/eight-biggest-founding-fathers-myths-national-history-day (Marc Kenney)
The Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota (Lacoda Sioux Indians) currently contains upwards of 80% unemployment and higher than 50% alcoholism in adults. (marc Kenney)
Ruth Benedict and Gene Weltfish
Races of Mankind

Illustrated pamphlet on race that was distributed to schools to expose misconceptions and biases on race relations in the United States. The main purpose was to expose scientific truths about race and deconstruct fallacies that existed in the 1940s. (Rachel Eleiott)
Nation at Risk
Written by the National Commission on Excellence of Education this report was a part of an 18th month study to find ways to reform and renew the nations education during the Cold War era. The risk is that America is no longer secure and that as a nation education must focus on knowledge, learning, information, and skilled intelligence as a means to compete. Recommendations included more study and work skills at earlier ages, 7 hour school day for 200 days as year, increased teacher salaries, and better teacher preparation programs.
(Rachel Eleiott)
Thomas Jefferson
Bill 79 "Bill for a More General Diffusion of Education"
Jefferson drafted this bill while revising Virginian laws. This bill focused on ways to change oppressive governments through education. Jefferson expressed that through history those with power have continuously abused their position and the only way to prevent this abuse is to educate the young on trends that lead to tyranny so they can stop it. Jefferson claimed that children from all background regardless of birth, wealth, or status should be educated because they will be the future problem solvers of society. This claimed that education should be free to all and paid through taxation.
(Rachel ELeiott)

Paideia Proposal
Mortimer J. Adler
Educational reform plan that suggested that all American children should receive a liberal education with three main objectives:
1. all students educated for work
2. educated for citizenship
3. educated in personal growth and development
This meant that all students would receive "the best education for all" meaning the same course of study for all. The five main courses were English, Math, History, physical education, and work training. Biggest critique is that his "one-size fits all" model is not a reality of today's students.
(Rachel Eleiott)

Jane Roland Martin
"Reclaiming a Conversation: The Ideal of the Educated Woman."
Professor on gender and education, Jane Roland Martin focuses on students as more than minds but holistic beings with feelings, bodies, and emotions. Her work in particular redefines the 21st C learning experience where schools need to take on the home's role and women need to be a part to promote skills, knowledge, and activities. She coins the term "school-home" in which schools need to help pass cultural wealth and the 3 C's of care, concern, and connection. Her proposal was a New Paradigm where school were connected to everyday life, focused on action and making the world a better place, contributing to society, and needing to redefine the public world. She believed that it was the responsibility of all of society to educate children.
(Rachel Eleiott)
Goals 2000: Educate America Act
Bill Clinton 1994
This Act provided resources to states in order to ensure that all students reach higher levels of achievement. Congress provided $105 million in exchange for individual states that submit applications describing the process by which they would develop a school improvement plan,
By 2000 the following would be accomplished
1. all children will be ready to learn
2. high graduation rates up 20%
3. Grades 4,8, 12 will demonstrate competency (common core) in English, Science, Math, History, Arts, and Foreign Language
4. students will be first in math and science
5. literacy will increase
6. schools will be free of drugs and violence
7. teaching force will continue to professionally grow
8. there will be a partnership between parents and school
This would turn into No Child Left Behind under the Bush Administration.
(Rachel Eleiott)

Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson was one of the Founders of the United States of America. He wrote the Declaration of Independence. He was the Third President of the United States of America. He advanced America in many ways. He purchased the Louisiana area. He did many great things. This video takes a look at some of those things.

( Hyosun Park)

Smoke Signals (1998), a film by Chris Eyre, chronicles two boys who live on the CoeurD'Alene Indian Reservation in Plummer, Idaho. It is an all-Native-American production that refers to the injustice and cultural (meaning?) issues affecting their society. It is an accurate portrayal that won the 1998 American Indian Film Festival's Best Film. (marc kenney)
The Blaine Amendments (mid 1800's) forbade tax money to be used to fund parochial schools. As the nation was mostly Protestant and there was anti-Catholic sentiment related to heavy immigration from Ireland, there was a feeling that Catholics and Lutherans had to open their own schools to protect their religion. (marc kenney)
In 1925, the Supreme court ruled in Pierce vs. Society of Sisters that students could attend private school to comply with state compulsory education laws, thus giving parochial schools an official
16 and pregnant in the Choctaw Nation

"Life as a teen mom could be difficult under any circumstances. But it’s even more so here in the Choctaw Nation, a vast, rural expanse in southeastern Oklahoma where poverty and unemployment are rampant and the teen pregnancy rate is nearly double the national average."


With America fully engaged in World War II, teachers made racial tolerance the centerpoint of wartime education by utilizing the anthropolgical definition of race. In an attempt to address the mounting racial tensions in the neighborhood, experiments within the lessons lead one class in NYC, to challenge the American Red Cross' policies of segregating blood on the basis of race. Through the Youthbuilders organization, The project brought national attention to the scientific and biological facts that "Negro" and "white" blood was the same. {Christine Walsh}
College Board President Gaston Caperton at a 2001 Washington news conference spoke about the education disparity among minorities. "Tests are not the problem. Students are not the problem. The problem we have is an unfair education system in America- an uneqUAL educational system." (marc Kenney)

Thomas Jefferson offered much to the establishment of public education in America. This said, he opposed compulsory education, but noted the complexity of the issue. "Is it a right or a duty in society to take care of their infant Members in opposition to the will of the parent? How far does this right and duty extend?- to guard the life of the infant, his property, his destruction, his morals." (marc Kenney)
Race to the Top in 2009 offered $4.35 billion to education to "fix" the myriad problems. It was an optional, competitive approach. Is it just another veiled, political attempt to insure votes? (marc kenney)
14 Disturbing Stats About Racial Inequality in American Public Schools

From: http://www.thenation.com/blog/178958/14-disturbing-stats-about-racial-inequality-american-public-schools#

During the 2011–12 school year:

1. Black students accounted for 18 percent of the country’s pre-K enrollment, but made up 48 percent of preschoolers with multiple out-of-school suspensions.
2. Black students were expelled at three times the rate of white students.
3. American Indian and Native-Alaskan students represented less than 1 percent of students, but 3 percent of expulsions.
4. Black girls were suspended at higher rates than all other girls and most boys.
5. American Indian and Native-Alaskan girls were suspended at higher rates than white boys or girls.
6. Nearly one in four boys of color, excepting Latino and Asian American students, with disabilities received an out-of-school suspension.
7. One in five girls of color with disabilities received an out-of-school suspension.
8. A quarter of the schools with the highest percentage of black and Latino students did not offer Algebra II.
9. A third of these schools did not offer chemistry.
10. Less than half of American Indian and Native-Alaskan high school students had access to the full range of math and science courses, which consists of Algebra I, Geometry, Algebra II, calculus, biology, chemistry and physics.
11. Black and Latino students accounted for 40 percent of enrollment at schools with gifted programs, but only represented 26 percent of students in such programs.
12. Black, Latino and Native American students attended schools with higher concentrations of first-year teachers (3-4 percent) than white students (1 percent).
13. Black students were more than three times as likely to attend schools where fewer than 60 percent of teachers meet all state certification and licensure requirements.
14. Latino students were twice as likely to attend such schools.

Nu na da ul tsun yi-
“the Place Where They Cried”

"In 1838, the Cherokee people were forcibly removed from their lands in the Southeastern United States to the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) in the Western United States, which resulted in the deaths of approximately 4,000 Cherokees."


History of Bilingual Education

Credit to PBS for having a great timeline which shows the history of Bilingual Education in the United States!

Connecticut implements Compulsory School Attendance Laws

Lau v. Nichols, 1974

Non-English-speaking Chinese students sued San Francisco Unified School District officials, claiming they received unequal educational opportunities, which violated the Fourteenth Amendment. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in the students favor. The ruling guaranteed children an opportunity to a "meaningful education" regardless of their language background.
First Bilingual Public School in the U.S.

Opened in 1964, Coral Way Bilingual K-8 Center, in Miami, Florida, is the first bilingual public school in the United States.

- All students in grades Pre-K through 8, regardless of their origin, participate in a dual language bilingual program.

- 60% of the day is taught in English, while
40% of the day is taught in Spanish.
"Grab a zooter. Take off his pants and frock coat and tear them up or burn them."

oot Suit Riots of 1943


In Los Angeles during World War II, riots between Anglo-American Sailors and Latino youth broke out. The Latino youth were recognizable by the zoot suits they wore.

A "citizens' committee" concluded that racism was the main cause of the riots while the mayor concluded that the riots were not caused by racism, but they were caused by
"juvenile delinquents" and by "white Southerners."

National Environmental Education Act of 1990

Act of Congress which promoted environmental education in the United States and authorized:

-The Office of Environmental Education in the Environmental Protection Agency
-An environmental education and training program
- Education grants and student fellowships
- Presidential Environmental Youth Awards
- Federal Task Force and National Advisory Council
- National Environmental Education and Training Foundation

The Massachusetts Law 1647
"Old Deluder Satan Act"

From this law came the establishment of elementary schools in towns with over 50 families and secondary or Latin grammar schools with over 100 families. The purpose was to keep the scriptures of the Bible ever present with the colonists.
"It being one chief point of that old deluder, Satan, to keep men from the knowledge of Scriptures, as in former times, by keeping them in an unknown tongue, so in these latter times, by persuading them from the use of tongues that so at last the true sense and meaning of original might be clouded by false glosses of saint-seeming deceivers, that learning might not be buried in the graves of our fathers, in the church and commonwealth, the Lord assisting our endeavours,--it is therefore ordered...." (excerpt from the law of 1647. Below is copy of the original law reprinted in 1855. Christine Walsh)
The concept of
Faculty Psychology
was first formulated in 1734 by Christian von Wolff and later by Franz Gall. The most popular form of this theory held that the mind consisted of three separate powers: the will, the emotions, and the intellect. It was believed that these were natural components of an individual and could be influenced and changed by the environment, discipline and excercise of the various faculties. It would later become an intrinsic factor in the move for moral reform in the nineteenth century. {Christine Walsh}
Mr. George Baron, an instructor at West point military
academy is considered to be the first American Instructor to
incorporate the use of a large black chalk board into the
presentations of his math lessons in 1801. Prior to this
date, teachers and schools had no means of visually
presenting information to an entire schoolroom at once. Students mainly relied on hand held slates on which teachers would have to go from pupil to pupil to copy a math problem.
Chalk boards remained the primary all-around educational fixture in schoolrooms and businesses for almost 200 years.
(About Blackboards-Blackboard Technology and Chalkboard History) {Submitted by Christine Walsh}
Hornbooks were used by school children for centuries beginning in Europe in the mid-15th centuries and later making its way to America. It was a wooden paddle with a handle, sometimes with a leather strap attached so that it was easily carried on a child's belt or around their necks. Tacked to the paddle were different lessons consisting of the alphabet, pronunciations, the Lord's prayer and a praise of the Trinity. These were exceptionally helpful after the passage of the Old Deluder Satan Law. {submitted by Christine Walsh}

Although Burkholder highlights the work of anti-racist anthropologists during the 1930's and 1940's, the WWII era saw a spike in government sponsored racist propaganda. The political cartoons of Dr. Seuss are particularly revealing.


Dr. Seuss Went to War
First Kindergarten
919 Charles Street, Watertown, Jefferson County, Wisconsin

In 1856 Margarethe Schurz started a kindergarten in the Schurz's Watertown home for her young daughter and four of her daughter's cousins. When more children wanted to join, Mrs. Schurz opened a school in this small building. This was the first kindergarten in America.

While living in Germany, sixteen year old Margarethe had been influenced by a series of lectures by the noted educator Friedrich Froebel. Froebel's course was on the "the new education," of which kindergarten was the first step. She later assisted her sister, Madame Ronge, in running a kindergarten in London. After moving to Wisconsin in 1856, Margarethe Schurz applied these ideas to her school. (passage taken from the Wisconsin Historical Society website
{sumbmitted by Christine Walsh}

The Tape family left to right: Joseph, Emily, Mamie,
Frank and Mary

Tape vs. Hurley 1885

Asian Americans were denied access to equal educational opportunities due to the negative stereotypes placed upon them by European Americans. The Tape family felt that their daughter Mamie should be able to attend public school despite the California school code that made no provisions for any racial minorities of color.

Jennie Hurley, the local school principal, stood at the schoolhouse entrance and blocked Mamie from entering. It was then that family took Hurley to court and sued the San Francisco School District to offer education to all Chinese children. Superior Court Judge James Maguire ruled in favor of the Tape family which lead to the revision of the code and allowed for education of Chinese children in segregated schools.
As Common Core Tests Approach, So Does A Sea Change In Schools

From: http://www.npr.org/2014/03/18/291172134/as-common-core-tests-approach-so-does-a-sea-change-in-schools

A new experiment in education begins Tuesday. Early assessments based on the Common Core State Standards will be rolled out and tested in the coming months. Some 3 million students will participate.
(Na Rae)
The American Public Education System was directly imported from Prussia (modern day Germany). This model of "free and compulsory" education was designed by the Prussian Emperor, in order to generate obedient workers and soldiers who would not question his authority.

In the 1830's, American Lawmaker Horace Mann visited Prussia and researched its education methodology. He was infatuated with the emperor's method of eliminating free thought from his subjects and designed an education system for Massachusetts directly based on these concepts. The movement then quickly spread nationally.

Horace Mann said, "The State is the father of children." Do you want your children growing up in total submission to the State?
(Na Rae)
“Education is the kindling of a flame, not the filling of a vessel.” ― Socrates

(Na Rae)
Assimilation Through Education: Indian Boarding Schools in the Pacific Northwest

The goal of Indian education from the 1880s through the 1920s was to assimilate Indian people into the melting pot of America by placing them in institutions where traditional ways could be replaced by those sanctioned by the government. Federal Indian policy called for the removal of children from their families and in many cases enrollment in a government run boarding school. In this way, the policy makers believed, young people would be immersed in the values and practical knowledge of the dominant American society while also being kept away from any influences imparted by their traditionally-minded relatives.

From: https://content.lib.washington.edu/aipnw/marr.html
(Na Rae)

Dear Father,

I am working in St. Joseph, Missouri and get $1.75 a day. If you want me to go home write and tell me and send me some money to go home. I am not going to tell you why I run away in this letter but I will tell you when I get there, I guess I will tell you some so you understand. I do not like the food and we have to pay for everything we do. I am going home so you must not be sorry I will get there some day if you send the money. I have to pay 15.00 dollar to go home if you send it I go home right away.

Let some white man write if you right so I can get it. I am getting along fine and I hope you are the same. Do you know that I ran away from school? I know you want to know where I am so I am going to tell you. I have not much to say so I have to close. So good bye.

Answer Soon
Your Son
Isaac Plenty Hoops

(Na Rae)
Margaret Mead 1901-1979

Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it's the only thing that ever has.

As an anthropologist, Mead was best known for her studies of the non-literate peoples of Oceania, especially with regard to various aspects of psychology and culture—the cultural conditioning of sexual behavior, natural character, and culture change. As a celebrity, she was most notable for her forays into such far-ranging topics as women’s rights, child rearing, sexual morality, nuclear proliferation, race relations, drug abuse, population control, environmental pollution, and world hunger.

From: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/371443/Margaret-Mead
(Na Rae)
Racist Era

The military's view toward African Americans during World War II reflected that of the wider American culture. According to a report commissioned by the Army War College, African Americans were "careless, shiftless, irresponsible and secretive" and "unmoral and untruthful." Commanding officers were instructed to "handle" their African American subordinates "with praise and by ridicule." The accepted viewpoint of the day was that African American soldiers were not equally capable as -- and would require more intensive leadership than -- their white counterparts. Furthermore, the military believed black soldiers were unsuited to serve as officers.

From: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/alaska-WWII/
(Na Rae)
Herman Boone: The Rest of the Story

In 1971, racial tensions ran high at TC Williams High School in Alexandria, Virginia, as three schools merged to form a newly integrated one. Out of this experience the story of Remember the Titans emerged; and an undefeated football team was born. They won the state championship that year. While there have been about 30 more Virginia state championship games since then, that 1971 season, coached by Herman Boone, will always be special.

After beating out local favorite and successful coach Bill Yoast of the formerly all-white Hammond High to become head coach of the Titans, Boone faced the challenge of a lifetime. Although honored by his appointment, he had to endure racial intolerance and the disapproval of Yoasts supporters. However, after putting their prejudices aside, the two coaches worked together to unify the team - a team whose former rivalry was only exacerbated by the strain between the black and white players. The team came together to form a bond with a common vision - to win football game.
(Na Rae)
Why the Racist History of the Charter School Movement Is Never Discussed

March 9, 2012
As a parent I find it easy to understand the appeal of charter schools, especially for parents and students who feel that traditional public schools have failed them. As a historical sociologist who studies race and politics, however, I am disturbed both by the significant challenges that plague the contemporary charter school movement, and by the ugly history of segregationist tactics that link past educational practices to the troubling present.

From: http://www.alternet.org/story/154425/why_the_racist_history_of_the_charter_school_movement_is_never_discussed
(Na Rae)
Ralph W. Tyler Publishes Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction (1949)

With the publication of Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction, Ralph W. Tyler could not have suspected that his little book of only eighty-three pages would make such an indelible mark on the field of curriculum theorizing, as well as on teaching practices in the American public schools. In 1949, Tyler probably could not have predicted that in time he would become the most prominent name in curriculum studies in the United States, either. Yet, this is exactly the course his career would take through the mid-twentieth century.
(Na Rae)
The African American Struggle through the U.S. Educational System
Before the end of the Civil War, the education of black slaves in the United States was a criminal endeavor. Although efforts were made in the newly formed free black communities to organize schools, few African Americans received any education at all before the Reconstruction Era when public schools were opened. Even then, establishments for black children were poorly financed and largely ignored. Emerging in the 1870s, Jim Crow laws ruled the educational system and schools became legally racially segregated. In 1890, the first “colored” school building in Winter Park was opened to African American children, under the harsh conditions of the time.
(Na Rae)
The Freedmen’s Bureau was established in 1865 to aid formerly enslaved African Americans. Its limited resources never met the tremendous demand for education from African Americans across the South.
This fund raising handbill shows the Freedmen’s School in St. Helena, South Carolina. It was founded in 1862, following the Union occupation of the area.
(Book lent by Collection of Historical Textbooks, Monroe C. Gutman Library Special Collections, Harvard Graduate School of Education; handbill courtesy of Library of Congress; )
The Freedmen’s spelling book opened to title page (left), Freedmen’s Fund raising Handbill (right)

(Na Rae)
Five things to know about today’s report on unequal education
Posted by Greg
-Black and minority students have less access to advanced classes as compared to their white peers.

-Minority students are more likely to attend schools with a higher concentration of first-year teachers than white students.

-Black students of all ages are suspended and expelled at a rate that’s three times higher than that of white children.

-Students with disabilities are subjected to "seclusion and restraint" at alarming rates.

-40% of school disrticts offer no pre-school programs.
Sal Castro
Sal Castro was one of the school leaders involved in the East L.A. Walkouts o 1968. He was a public school teacher who had a prominent voice in the walkouts and a strong relationship with the students as they made their demands public for the Los Angeles Board of Education
(Anthony Turgeon)
Los Angeles Walkouts
The Los Angeles Walkouts were staged by Los Angeles High School students in 1968 in an effort to make public their discontent with the school facilities and programs that were being offered to latino youth in the community. These walkouts were led by students from 8 high schools in East L.A. From March 1 - 8, 1968, with a culminating board of education meeting coming on March 28, 1968.
(Anthony Turgeon)
NJ v. TLO (1985)
This landmark supreme court case ruled that school officials may search a student's property if they have a "reasonable suspicion" that a school rule has been broken, or a student has committed or is in the process of committing a crime.
(Anthony Turgeon)
Joseph Lancaster (1778-1838)
Lancaster was the founder of an educational system which used the first form of peer tutoring in a public school setting. As one student learns the material, they are then rewarded for passing it on to the next student, and so on and so forth. This became known as the Lancasterian system.
(Anthony Turgeon)
Diary of a Part Time indian by Sherman Alexie (2007) is currently the most banned book in the US. It is a semi-autobiographical text detailing the harsh treatment of Native Americans. (marc kenney)
1988 Hazelwood vs. Kuhlmeier

Students felt their right to free speech was being blocked after questionable material was removed from the school newspaper. Much like the Bethel case, this was about free speech. The Supreme Court ruled that since the school paid for the production it was an extension of the eudcational process and can be censored. (marc kenney)
Title IX
Title IX is a part of the Education Amendments of 1972. It states that No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance. Title IX is most famous for its role in relationship to equality for both men and women in terms of athletic team opportunities in public schools.
(Anthony Turgeon)
(Individuals with Disabilities Education Act)
IDEA was enacted by congress in 1975 to ensure that children who were deemed to have disabilities were able to receive a free appropriate public education like their non - disabled counterparts. The law has been revised many times and is still under constant scrutiny and supervision to this day.
(Anthony Turgeon)
Dio Lewis
Dio Lewis was pone of the founding fathers of physical education in American Schools. He Developed “new gymnastics” that stressed agility, grace, flexibility, and general health and posture. In 1861 he founded the Normal Institute for Physical Education Located in Boston, MA. This was the first physical education teacher training institution in the United States.
(Anthony Turgeon)
Why Are American Schools perceived by many as failing?
Here is the link to an interesting article someone shared with me about what High Schools in American have turned into today.

(Anthony Turgeon)
National Defense and Education Act, 1958
Education became a national defense initiative after the Soviets beat the US to space with Sputnik.

Eisenhower's Statement Upon Signing the Act: www.presidency.ecsb.edu/ws/?pid=11211
(Emily McAdam)
More Blacks are Competing in Advanced Placement Programs, but the Racial Scoring Gap is Widening
(Emily McAdam)
History of the Advanced Placement Program
The Ford Foundation funded studies that showed an increasing gap between secondary and higher education as well as an overlap in coursework and skills between the highest achieving secondary students and first-year college requirements. A pilot program ran in 1952 and the College Board began administering the program in the 1955-1956 school year.

(Emily McAdam)
Hull House
Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr opened Hull House in 1889, a settlement house in the Near West Side neighborhood in Chicago. It offered its impoverished, immigrant community art, literacy, civic, and home economics education, and it provided a public kitchen, public baths, a playground, and cultural activities. Addams and her fellow Hull House residents took up numerous causes, including campaigning for child labor laws, public health (including municipal garbage collection), women's suffrage, and world peace. She was a major promoter of the playground movement, which is discussed in Spring, chapter 8. See this article: infed.org/mobi/social-reform-and-organized-recreation-in-the-usa/
(Emily McAdam)
Indian Praying Towns in Connecticut:
Maanexit, Quinnatisset, and Wabaquasset
See article from the Nipmuc Indian Association of Connecticut: www.nativetech.org/Nipmuc/praytown.html
(Emily McAdam)
{Na Rae Sin}
Colonial Williamsburg Opens
John D. Rockefeller funded the project because of "the lesson it teaches of the patriotism, high purpose, and unselfish devotion of our forefathers to the common good." Therefore, the educational emphasis was on rich white men until the late 70s, and hundreds of historic buildings constructed after the colonial period were demolished when re-creating the museum (only a handful of buildings were restored).

Phi Beta Kappa founded at the College of William and Mary
1817: The American Asylum at Hartford for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb opens
Pamphlet published in 1893 explaining its origins: www.disabilitymuseum.org/dhm/lib/detail.html?id=1371
1862: The Port Royal Experiment in the Union-controlled Sea Islands, SC attempts to educate African-Americans for freedom. It proves a need for federal support for education in the South, and the Freedmen's Bureau was established. Education is considered its greatest success.
(Emily McAdam)
Laura Towne and her students
1944: The GI Bill
Almost 8 million World War II veterans take advantage of the GI Bill; 2 million attend college and about 238,000 become teachers.

Quote from Richard H. Pratt, founder of the first Indian boarding school, Carlisle Indian Industrial School. This digital story is about an Indian Boarding school experience.

Kill the Indian, Save the Man
Quote from Richard H. Pratt, founder of the first Indian boarding school, Carlisle Indian Industrial School. This digital story is about an Indian Boarding school experience.
( Hyosun Park)

United States War dept promotion film to enlist african americans in the military during ww2
Needed for war production, African-Americans are shown being trained and educated at traditionally Black colleges.
African-American soldiers and sailors in uniform on campus. Aircraft flying classes. African-American students and scientists in laboratories. African-American women taking an automotive repair class are shown changing a car tire. Unusual footage of African-American women in laboratories, engineering study and other science/technical fields; also farm management. African-Americans involved in the study of agricultural production and animal husbandry are shown. Study of meteorology, the chemistry of explosives, medicine, radio communications, surveying and topography.

(Hyosun Park)

February 28th, 1953

James Watson and Francis Crick finally solve the mystery of the DNA structure. The discovery of the double-helix sugar-phosphate backbone connected by base pairs is the forefront in future discoveries leading to work in genetics. Originally published on April 25th, 1953. (Ian Johnson)



African American History WW2 1944
John Dewey Experience and Education: a brief summary
John Dewey. Looking over 1938 work, Experience and Education. This video is a quick summary of Dewey's views on education and experiential learning. This book looks at the arguments between traditional and progressive extremes of education and offer a solution for what schools should be.
(Hyosun Park)


The first New England Primer is printed in Boston. The new England Primer goes on to become the most widely used text book in New England.
(Ian Johnson)
Massachusetts 1827
Massachusetts enacts a law which requires towns of more than 500 families to have a public school open to all students. The government is making strong pushes for schools districts and the raising of taxes to support them. (Ian Johnson)
Home schoolers establish their own National Honor Society, Eta Sigma Alpha, with more than 20 chapters nationwide. As many as 2 million children in grades K-12 are home schooled each year. (Ian Johnson)
Eta Sigma Alpha 2002
Larry P. v Wilson Riles
IQ tests cannot be used to determine whether or not African American students should be classified as mentally retarded due to the racial and cultural bias of the assessment. No IQ tests will be used on students to test for disability.
African American students filed a class action lawsuit claiming that they had experienced racial discrimination after having been diagnosed with educable mental retardation (EMR). Culturally insensitive IQ tests used during the diagnosis processes resulted in mis-classification which violated the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment. This lead to a statewide over representation of African American students in the EMR community. (Ian Johnson)

Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. -Nelson Mandela

(Ian Johnson)

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act is the legislative foundation for all services that students with disabilities receive in schools today. The link below gives us and idea of what the conditions were like before IDEA, and how it has changed the educational guidelines and created a direction for students with disabilities today. (Ian Johnson)

IDEA Celebrates 35 Years
National Science Teachers Association (70 years)
"to promote excellence and innovation in science teaching and learning for all."

(Ian Johnson)
Sesame Street has its series premiere on November 10th, 1969. Although their were mixed reviews, the programs is famous for its educational content being delivered through large animals and cartoons.
( Ian Johnson)
ㅗㅗㄷㅁㅇ ㄴㅅㅁㄳ
The Head Start Program
The Head Start Program is a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families.
(Hyosun Park)
A Visual Timeline
of African American History

The songs used for this video are "Piano & I" by Alicia Keys, the intro to her awesome debut album "Songs in A Minor" (2001); the other song is "Uncloudy Day" by the Staple Singers (1956). I put together pictures and video clips to create a timeline of African American history in the United States, from slavery to freedom. I tried to keep it in chronological order as best as I could. More credits below. I hope you enjoy. I love stories of victory.
(Hyosun Park)

First Stop- The 1800s
In the 1800s, very few people lived in this area. In 1852, John Reed Hilliard bought 10 acres of farmland knowing that the Columbus, Piqua, and Indiana Railroad would be passing through this land. Then in 1853, the town that John Reed Hilliard designed grew around the railroad route and become known as Hilliard’s Station. This area is what we now know as the city of Hilliard, Ohio.

In the west part of the area, in Brown Township, Solomon Jackson Wooley founded the Applegate Tile Company. He discovered that the clay near Big Darby Creek was good for making tile. Around this time, other businesses were opened to help the community’s needs. These included mills (flour and saw), merchants (groceries, dry goods, and produce), smithies (iron and tin), shoemakers, dressmakers, wheelwrights, coopers, carpenters, plasterers, brick masons, and pump makers. Homes were first made of logs until bricks were available in 1880.
(Hyosun park)

From: http://www.northwesthistoryexpress.com/timeline/overview1800.php
The Connecticut Asylum for teh Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Pers opens in Hartford. (Ian Johnson)
The United States Department of Education est. 1980
(Ian Johnson)

Horace Mann -
The Father Of American Education
Hyosun Park
Mark Twain's Voice
You've seen his pictures, read his books, enjoyed his sharpened wit and piercing humor. But you've never heard the sound, the cadence or inflections of Mark Twain's voice. It is unlikely that you ever will hear the authentic Twain voice. The most celebrated and sought-after speaker of his century, a man heard around the world, apparently left us with his written, but not his spoken word. No voice recording is known to survive. One recording, considered to be the most reliable example of his manner of speech, was made at Harvard University in 1934 when William Gillette, a celebrated actor and former neighbor of Twain, performed his long-practiced imitation of Twain to a class of students. Video narration by Rod Rawlings

(Hyosun Park).
Education Is NOT The Same As Schooling

Did high school ever feel somewhat like a prison? Did it ever feel like being in a machine that had its own purposes and goals separate from yours? This feeling is not uncommon, and an examination of the development of the school explains why. Rather than being a tool to educate, the school as we know it today started as a way to produce obedient and loyal subjects, soldiers, and workers. It was never intended to develop the mind in any meaningful way. Education and schooling are often conflated, but there are many important distinctions between the two. Prof. Steven Davies argues that schools are not suited for educating and it is high time we move away from the idea of the school as the only option for delivering education.

(Hyosun Park)
Thomas Edison Biography

Thomas Edison was an American inventor. Edison invented the phonograph, motion picture camera and long-lasting electric lightbulb. Edison holds over 1000 US patents. Edison developed and distributed electric power to homes and businesses. His contributions became an essential part of modern industrialization that went on to greatly influence the rest of the world.
(Hyosun Park)
5 Amazing Inventions by Benjamin Franklin
Ben Franklin was a founding father of the United States as well as a scientist, postmaster, author and musician, but he may be remembered most for his inventions. Find out what surprising items you didn't know Ben Franklin invented this week on Discovery Lists.
(Hyosun Park)
Martin Luther King -
I Have A Dream Speech

I Have a Dream Speech
Martin Luther King's Address at March on Washington
August 28, 1963. Washington, D.C.

(Hyosun Park)
Full transcript