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Sam kells art histroy assignment
Transcript of Sam kells art histroy assignment
By Leonardo Da Vinci
Fresco The Primavera (Spring)
By Sandro Botticelli
Oil on Canvas The Pieta (Pity)
Marble What was the Renaissance? The word Renaissance in English means rebirth. The Renaissance was a period in time around 1300AD -1600AD when new knowledge was being discovered and old knowledge was being rediscovered . The Renaissance period occurred at the time the Middle Ages was ending. The Middle Ages was a time when the church had controlled many aspects of life including education and the universities . One of the reasons that the Renaissance started was the black plague. The church told people that the plague was a way of god telling people that are being punished for all their sins. As people started to follow religious activities, people were still dying from the plague. This caused people to rethink their ideas. So the older ideas of the Greeks and Romans and new discoveries by scholars, artists, architects, doctors, astronomers and scientists started to influence the way that people thought about the world, Including in areas of art, architecture, botany, zoology, anatomy and astronomy. How did Art Change During the Renaissance? During the Middle Ages art was a way of showing the church’s power, the artists would use expensive materials like gold and blue paint which at the time were the most expensive paints available because they were made out of rare stones. Middle age art was less about pleasing the eye and it was more about educating, as people couldn’t read the bible or understand church services. The art was usually about important saints and people from the bible. Because art was more about showing power and educating people it was less about pleasing the eye and detail. Often people in the pictures had the exact same face as everyone else in the picture and the less important people in the pictures were usually painted smaller than ever body else. During the Renaissance artists were trying to make art more being pleasing to the eye than about education. Artist started using techniques like perspective, shading, light and dark and fresco. The topic of art also changed, they still painted and sculpted lots of religious artworks but they, the artists started to create art about ancient Greek and Roman stories and they started to paint portraits of people. Not only did the church commission artists to create art, powerful and rich families started to commission art as it was the trendy thing to do at the time. Artists also started to add more detail in to their paintings by adding backgrounds, plants and animals and they became more interested in the human body
I chose these artworks because as I think they are good examples of showing what the Renaissance was like through art. I also like these artworks and I have seen 2 of them.
Example of Middle Age Art Example of Renaissance Art Shading (Sfumato) Perspective Light and Dark Fresco The last supper depicts the moment when Jesus tells his disciples that someone has betrayed him. This is why it looks like people are yelling and talking to people about who has betrayed Jesus. This is different than normal paintings of the last supper as it shows the disciples acting like regular people. This example of storytelling through art was common during the middle ages.
The painting was Leonardo’s first attempt at doing a fresco. He wanted to experiment by using dry plaster instead of wet plaster so he could have more time to create a more detailed painting. He was able to make it incredibly detailed but after only two years the paints started to flake because the plaster didn’t blend right with the paint. It has been restored numerous times because of the flaking and also due to fact that it has been vandalized and it was bombed in world war Two
The last supper use’s perspective to make the painting look 3 Dimensional. As the focal point rests on Jesus’s head you eye immediately goes to look at Jesus which show that he is the most important person in the painting.
Another technique which Leonardo has used is light and dark. As Jesus doesn’t have a halo in this painting Leonardo use’s the background light in the back of the painting to show that Jesus is holy.
Leonardo Da Vinci is a very important person during the Renaissance. During the Renaissance he was a well respected artist. He was also a famous engineer and inventor. He sketched lot of inventions in his note book which are considered a head of their time. He had a fascination with the natural world and anatomy .The fact he was famous probably influenced more people to learn about the natural world and what the human body is like. He was quite restless if he didn’t like the project he was doing or he just got bored he would stop that project and move on to something else. He was always wanting to learn or do something different because the Renaissance was a period when knowledge was getting discovered all the time.
The Pieta was commissioned by Cardinal Jean de Billheres of France. Statues like the Pieta were uncommon in Italy but they were more common in the northern parts of Europe like France. A lot of other objects from other parts of the world were important to the Renaissance in Italy. If the people in Italy hadn’t learnt how to make a printing press from the people of Germany, the people of Italy wouldn’t be able to learn new ideas or publish their own ideas.
The Pieta was the first piece of artwork that made Michealango well known. It was praised because it was very life like which shows that the people of the Renaissance were very interested in the human anatomy.
The sculpture was criticized as Mary was portrayed as a young woman of about 30 but in the bible she was around the age of fifty when Jesus was crucified. Michealango said as she is a women who has a pure soul she would never age. Some people thought that another artist has sculpted this statue so one night Michealango carved his name into the pieta it was first and last sculpture he signed.
This is different from other forms of Pieta as Mary is the main figure of this sculpture. This is shown through the way that Michealango sculpted Mary as she seems bigger than Jesus because of her robes, he does this as a way of showing what Mary is going through is more important and more tragic than what Jesus is going through. These are all examples of detail which Michealango has put in to this sculpture as it was an important part of Renaissance art. The Primavera painting is about the Roman gods. During the Renaissance, classical knowledge was being rediscovered and lots of stories about Roman gods were being told more frequently . Venus ,Mercury ,Cupid ,Zephyrus ,Flora and the three graces are all Roman Gods in this painting.
This painting was commissioned by the Lorenzo De Medici as a gift to his nephew. But after the death of his nephews father he decided to have it painted for one of his other relatives as a wedding gift. The Medici’s were a powerful banking family in Florence and Florence was at the centre the Renaissance movement. Lorenzo also commissioned a lot of other Renaissance artists like Michealango and Leonardo Da Vinci
This painting is based on a poem by a Renaissance writer called Marsilio Ficino who wrote a poem about how the god of west wind, Zephyrus fell in love with a nymph called Chloris. Zephyrus sexually abused Chloris and forced her to marry him, but after the marriage Zephyrus felt sorry for Chloris and to make up for what he had done to Chloris he turned her in to Flora the Goddess of flowers. This was Botticelli’s main inspiration for the painting. During the 15th century a lot of woman were forced to marry people they didn’t really know usually for reasons like social status, trading and political power.
The painting is set during the arrival of Spring. Primavera in English means Spring. As the painting is set in Spring there are flowers and plants everywhere in the painting and there is said to be over 500 species of identifiable flora and fauna in the painting. The flowers and the oranges symbolize fertility in marriage but as there are no flowers and oranges near Zephyrus it shows that because of what he had done in the past to his wife he is unworthy to father any children.
There is no lines in this painting only when something over laps something else. Botticelli used this to show that there are no outlines in nature. Mercury The Three Graces Venus Chloris THE RENAISSANCE Zephyrus Flora By Sam Kells Renaissance map of Florence. Where the Renaissance started