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Tsar Alexander I
Transcript of Tsar Alexander I
Resigned the power to local and regional governments.
Alexander relaxed the draconian censorship laws and reinstated a ban of torture.
Alexander lifted bans on
international travel for Russian subjects and reopened the borders for the entry of foreigners. Sought counsel from beyond the normal channels of the royal court
Recreated several of his fathers policies.
Restored a host of government officials to their positions.
Alexander could not come to terms with giving up his own powers to make the principle a reality.
A small cadre of trusted friends who exhibited shared liberal traits with the tsar.
Nicholas Novosiltsev, Count Paul Stroganov, Count Victor Kochubey, Adam
Czartoryski, and Tsar Alexander ( Five members) Began his reign in 1801 following the murder of his father.
He was a suspect of his fathers murder since there was rivalry between him and his father.
Educated by his grandmother who preferred him as a successor instead of her son Paul.
Admired the writings of philosopher, Jean-Jacques Rousseau ( 1712-78).
Had a strong religious and mystical leanings for most of his important decisions. Alexander I is one of
the more complex figures in Russian political
history, whose deeds are praised simultaneously
as both liberal and reactionary. http://jb-russianreflections.blogspot.com/2011/05/john-quincy-adams-in-russia-part-ii.html Colleges created by Peter the Great to serve as bureaucratic departments were replaced with more modern and efficient ministries.
Senate was granted the authority to serve as the supreme judicial and administrative body directly beneath the tsar. Omar Martinez
Neida Mendoza Time line Tension was built between Alexander's normativea vision of how modern government should work.
Speransky’s reforms represented a serious, modern program for institutionalizing a common system of law.
Draft constitution made provisions for structuring society into three basic tiers (gentry, merchant, and laborers). Each would possess its own basket of rights.
The draft constitution marked a considerable break with the Russian past in favor of a modern and Western system of governance. Alexander I’s Foreign Policy Had the opportunity to draw on his military and diplomatic skills to navigate dyadic border conflicts.
Russia and Prussia regrouped with Saxony, Sweden, and the United Kingdom to form the Fourth Coalition.
With the Fourth Coalition soundly dispatched by Napoleon’s troops, Russia was left as the remaining countervailing force to
the French Empire.
Napoleonic forces failed spectacularly, with massive defeats of the allies in the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt in 1806 and of Russia in the Battle of Friedland in 1807.
Crushing defeat of France in 1812, marked the beggining to the end of Alexander I, and provided a strong source of nationalism for Russia.
Alexander became preoccupied with international politics and diplomacy at the expense of domestic concerns. http://mediawiki.middlebury.edu/wiki/RUSS0151a_s09/Tsar_Alexander_I
Alexander’s inattention to domestic affairs contributed to widespread dissatisfaction in Russian society,
especially among the liberal elite.
Tsar Nicholas did not want his first act as sovereign to involve violence against his own people, the Decembrists refused to capitulate following a brief period of tense negotiations.
Decembrist's tempted to use Alexander I's death as a window of opportunity to revolt.
The Decembrists and their supporters marched into and occupied the capital’s Senate Square. Alexander failed to advance progressive policies or reforms as he had prior to the French invasion.
Quadruple Alliance, an agreement that would last for the next twenty years.
The Russian tsar participated in efforts to make the international Congress System, more effective. 1801-
Alexander I begins his reign after the death of his father. 1803-
Reform that extended property right to all free Russians, holding legal title to land. 1805-
Russo-Russian war heated up, Russia allied with Britain, Austria, and Prussia in attempt to contain and rebel the offensive French forces. 1810-
Alexander founded the council of state. 1809-
A skilled liberal advisor named Michael Speransky began to sketch details of a document that would transform the Russian Empire into a constitutional monarchy. 1808- 09-
Russ-Swedish war of 1808-09 was great swedish territorial loss. 1812-
Known as Patriotic War in Russia. 600,000 troops were sent most of them died from the cold or from disease or starvation. 1825-
A group of liberally minded army officers who had been pushing for reforms. 1806-12
Russia was at war with the Ottoman Empire 1814-15
Alexander participated at the Congress of Vienna to redrawthe European map and settle the international disputes. 1815 -
Russia ended Holy Alliance with Prussia and Austria, Great Britain short after 1825-
Faked his own death http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&hl=en&sa=X&tbm=isch&tbnid=BpaztE7MgrZ4WM:&imgrefurl=http://www.1st-art-gallery.com/Edouard-Pingret/Tsar-Alexander-I-1777-1825-Visiting-The-Paris-Hotel-De-La-Monnaie-On-25th-May-1814,-1844.html&docid=vj_l5orkHs7O8M&imgurl=http://www.1st-art-gallery.com/thumbnail/204176/1/Tsar-Alexander-I-1777-1825-Visiting-The-Paris-Hotel-De-La-Monnaie-On-25th-May-1814,-1844.jpg&w=600&h=464&ei=715JUNSXJuXKyQG98oDYBw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=187&sig=105310603207615726656&page=2&tbnh=145&tbnw=187&start=24&ndsp=31&ved=1t:429,r:20,s:24,i:230&tx=108&ty=82&biw=1288&bih=676 http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&hl=en&sa=X&tbm=isch&tbnid=zBBictig3aqqaM:&imgrefurl=http://lostsplendor.tumblr.com/post/4691701155&docid=PWvU4B-865EcpM&imgurl=http://24.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_ljt23gUbxP1qbwvhpo1_500.jpg&w=401&h=500&ei=715JUNSXJuXKyQG98oDYBw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=396&vpy=224&dur=560&hovh=251&hovw=201&tx=112&ty=106&sig=105310603207615726656&page=2&tbnh=156&tbnw=129&start=24&ndsp=31&ved=1t:429,r:10,s:24,i:199&biw=1288&bih=676 http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&hl=en&sa=N&tbm=isch&tbnid=50PkeARffNt6vM:&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decembrist_revolt&docid=p6RWW--SO_QkmM&imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/Kolman_decembrists.jpg/270px-Kolman_decembrists.jpg&w=270&h=183&ei=3mBJUPD6N4GOygHD4ICIDA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=208&vpy=2&dur=257&hovh=146&hovw=216&tx=152&ty=65&sig=105310603207615726656&page=1&tbnh=142&tbnw=195&start=0&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:76&biw=1288&bih=676 http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&hl=en&sa=N&tbm=isch&tbnid=DHmabQ-8eEjg4M:&imgrefurl=http://www.angelfire.com/pa/ImperialRussian/royalty/russia/tsar15.html&docid=y_2WvIBR4qY-tM&imgurl=http://www.angelfire.com/pa/ImperialRussian/royalty/russia/images/alexanderI08.jpg&w=687&h=533&ei=_GFJUI6YHc_QqAHrrIAw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=62&sig=105310603207615726656&page=1&tbnh=149&tbnw=187&start=0&ndsp=23&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0,i:91&tx=146&ty=49&biw=1288&bih=676