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A lecture on syllabus based on Hutchinson-Waters (1987)

Neny Isharyanti

on 21 March 2010

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Transcript of ESP-HutchinsonWaters-syllabus

Teaching plan
Description of the lesson
Summary of teaching process
Design of the course
Types of syllabus
Evaluation Syllabus
organizational Syllabus
materials Syllabus
teacher Syllabus
classroom Syllabus
learner Syllabus
A document which says what will (or at least what should) be learn
But it can be defined in various ways
content of learning through several different stages
Evaluation Syllabus
A statement of what to be learnt
simple past tense
simple present tense
past continuous tense
present continuous tense
What a successful learner will know by the end of the course
Assumption: nature of language and linguistic performance
The order of which it is to be learnt
Records of success/failure
Organizational Syllabus
Assumption: the nature of learning and language (factors influencing how people learn)
Which can be learned easily, which is more basic to learn, order of learning for certain items.
Materials Syllabus
First stage of interpretation of organizational syllabus by material writer(s)
Assumption: nature of language, language learning, and language use
Decide on:
Contexts of language use
Weightings and integration of skills
Number and types of exercises
Degree of recycling and revision
Teacher Syllabus
Second stage of interpretation of organizational syllabus by the teacher
Clarity, intensity and frequency of any item
Affect the image that the learners receive
Classroom Syllabus
Various factors in the classroom that influences the lesson plan
Learner Syllabus
The network of knowledge that develops in the learner’s brain and which enables that learner to comprehend and store later knowledge (Breen, 1984)
clear reference
No direct relationship between the starting point (the evaluation syllabus) and the end point (the learner syllabus) (Allwright, 1984b)
Why should we have it?
Practical benefit
Language is a complex entity necessary to be broken down
Moral support to the teacher & learner
Language learning task is manageable
Cosmetic role for the sponsors & students
Money is put into good use of thinking and planning the development of the course
Statement of projected routes of learning
Where & how to get to the aim of the learning
An implicit statement of views of the nature of language and learning
What & why it is learnt
criteria for materials selection and/or writing
The commonest use of syllabus, but can be the most damaging
Attempt to standardize the course
A visible basis for testing
criteria of success/failure
The Dangers of a syllabus
Awareness of why we want a syllabus and what will it be used for
It is only a model (an ideal)
It cannot express invisible factors that influence learning
It cannot cater individual differences
If it is for cosmetic, then don’t evaluate students based on it.
It is not a statement, but an approximate statement of what will be learnt
Emotions, personalities, subjective views, motivation
Ideal learner
Criteria of Syllabus Organization
Breakdown of the mass of knowledge into manageable units has to be based on certain criteria (pp. 85-88)
functional/notional skills
situational syllabus
Discourse/skills syllabus
Skills and strategies
Varied approach --> different aspects of language and learning reflected in the syllabus
Functional + structural aspect of lang --> func + struc syllabus
Role of Syllabus in Course Design
language-centered approach
skills-centered approach
Prime generator of teaching materials
To provide opportunities for learners to employ and evaluate the target situation skills and strategies
Authentic texts
Negotiation of texts and skills
Selection of good & relevant learning activities
Dynamic use of syllabus for methodological considerations
Breaking down the syllabus into two levels (fig. 24, p. 93)
Materials & syllabus evolve together
Learners’ needs as:
Users : target situation
Learners : learning situation
The Post hoc approach
See Fig. 25, p. 94
Syllabus is NOT sacred
Use it flexibly and appropriately
for the aims & processes of learning
Crucial for future learning (yes/no learning, how to learn it)
A retrospective record of what a learner has been learnt
several syllabus
Full transcript