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Sociological Perspectives

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Silvia Sheppard

on 7 September 2017

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Transcript of Sociological Perspectives

Sociological Perspectives
Each perspective VIEWS society in a certain way and makes certain ASSUMPTIONS.


Sociologists ask two basic questions:
1. What ISSUES should we study?
2. How should we CONNECT the facts?
Theoretical Perspectives
1. STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONAL APPROACH
View of Society: complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability.

Assumptions:
our lives are guided by
SOCIAL STRUCTURES
Each
SOCIAL STRUCTURE
has
SOCIAL FUNCTIONS
, or consequences, for the operation of society as a whole.
SOCIAL STRUCTURES
have:
1. recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern (
MANIFEST FUNCTIONS
)
2) largely unrecognized and unintended consequences (
LATENT FUNCTIONS
)
3) undesirable consequences of a social pattern for the operation of society (
SOCIAL DYSFUNCTIONS
)
-Views society as UNEQUAL
Assumptions:
-INEQUALITY creates CONFLICT & CHANGE
-understand society AND REDUCE SOCIAL INEQUALITY
2. SOCIAL-CONFLICT APPROACH
Assumptions:
-INEQUALITY & CONFLICT between MALES & FEMALES

-FEMINISM (support of social equality for women and men)
A. GENDER-CONFLICT APPROACH:
B. RACE-CONFLICT APPROACH
Assumptions:
INEQUALITY
&
CONFLICT
between people of different
RACIAL
&
ETHNIC
categories
views SOCIETY as the product of the everyday INTERACTIONS of INDIVIDUALS
3. symbolic-interaction approach

MICRO-LEVEL orientation (focuses on patterns of social interaction in specific settings)
MACRO-LEVEL orientation (focus on broad social structures that shape society as a whole)
MACRO-LEVEL (focus on broad social structures that shape society as a whole)
Assumptions:
Human beings act toward SYMBOLS (THINGS) on the basis of the MEANING things have
MEANING attributed to those SYMBOLS/THINGS that result from SOCIAL INTERACTION
meanings are modified by INTERPRETING SYMBOLS/THINGS

Emile Durkheim
Herbert Spencer
Auguste Comte
Karl Marx
Harriet Martineau
Jane Addams
Max Weber
C.W. Mills
W.E.B. DuBois
Full transcript