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Chapter 7 Gestures

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by

Nancy Spaeder

on 17 October 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 7 Gestures

1. Referent related gestures
2. Speaker’s relationship to the referent gestures:
3. Punctuation gestures: for accenting speaker discourse.
-- Counting, eyebrow flash, eye widening
Chapter 7
KINESICS
Effects of
Gesture & Posture
on Human Communication

--- Speech dependent
--- Speaker related
Kendon (1981) categories of gestural meaning:
1. Interpersonal control
2. Announcement of one’s current state of condition
3. Evaluative response to the actions and appearance of
another.
Speech Independent Gesture
MANIPULATORS (Adaptors)
Gestures made in manipulating or grooming
another part of the body

ILLUSTRATORS
Gestures that help explain what one person
says to another person

EMBLEMS
Gestures that have precise meanings
separate from verbal communication

Three Functions of Gestures
"Manwatching: a field guide to human behavior."
---1978

Desmond Morris' GESTICULATIONS
Autonomous gestures, the meaning of which are influenced by context, are culture-bound.
ILLUSTRATORS
EMBLEMS
MANIPULATORS
3 Categories
Speech Dependent Gesture
Speech Independent Gesture
Emblems
Speech Dependent Gesture
Illustrators
INTERACTIVE GESTURES
---Between both speaker & interaction partner
10-20% of all gestures observed in conversation.
Bavelas (1994) 4 primary functions of interactives:
1. Delivering information
2. Citing a previous contribution by your partner
3. Referring to issues associated with the exchange of
speaking turns
4. Seeking to solicit a specific response
Co-ordination of
Gesture, Posture & Speech
--Paul Ekman/ Wallace Friesen
--- Speech Independent
Self-Synchrony:
Single Speaker
Examples:
Phonemic clause (Condon, 1976)
(jerk of head at primary stress point in speech)

Kinesic Marker (Birdwhistle, 1966)
(marks a specific oral language behavior)
ex: eye blinks at beginnings and ends of words;
the shift from leaning back when listening to leaning forward while talking;
Interaction Synchrony: Postural Congruence
--Matching
1. Chameleon effect (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999)
2. Mirroring–Bavelas et al. (1992)
3. Motor mimicry –Bavelas et al. (1992)
4. Emotional contagion
--Meshing
examining the interaction synchrony by observing the ongoing co-occurrence of changes in movement and speech by each of two interactance.
Speech dependent gestures
Baton gesture
Air grasp
Precision gesture
Power grip
Imploring gesture
Condescending gesture
Chopping gesture
Full transcript