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Ch. 4 - Nonverbal Communication

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by

Krista Voss

on 25 March 2014

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Transcript of Ch. 4 - Nonverbal Communication

Ch. 4 - Nonverbal Communication
Functions of Nonverbal Comm.
There are 6 functions of N.C.
Vocalics
What are they?
Kinesics
Body movement:
Posture
Gestures
Proxemics
The use of space/distance to communicate
Environment
Surroundings that shape the comm. context
Nonverbal Communication
All the ways we communicate without words

Let's brainstorm the ways....
What can they do?
Communicate Feelings & Attitudes
More convincing than its verbal counterpart
1. Repeating
"Repeats" verbal message
2. Accenting
Highlights verbal message by emphasizing/enhancing a point
3. Conflicting
Contradicting the verbal message
4. Complementing
Reinforces a verbal message
5. Regulating
Manages flow of convo
6. Substituting
Replace verbal message
Vocalics
Using voice to express self
Reveals:
emotions
thoughts
relationship w/others
Vocalic Cues
Tone-quality
Volume
Articulation
Pitch (high -> low)
Rate
Silence
Our Digital World
Examples?
Posture
Shows dominance & status
Gestures
Hand & arm movements
5 categories of gestures
1. Emblems
Substitutes words & phrases
What do these mean?
2. Illustrators
Complement, enhance, substitute verbal message
What other examples
can you think of?
3. Affect Displays
Communicate emotions
4. Regulators
Controls turn-taking in convos
5. Adapters
Release tension
When have you used adapters in this class?
U.S. Middle-Class Culture
Four Spatial Zones:
Intimate (0-18")
Personal (18"-4')
Social (4'-12')
Public (>12')
Hall (1963)
Gender & Sexual Orientation Factor
Women more likely to sit next to each other than men
Homophobia -- fear of being perceived or labeled gay
Territoriality
Occupancy/ownership of space
1. Violation
Use of primary territory
w/out permission
3 types of intrusions
2. Invasion
Intention is to take over a given territory
3. Contamination
Territory is marked w/noise or pollution
Factors:
Architecture
Doors
Lighting
Seating Arrangements
Temperature
Cleanliness
Environment, Cont.
Impression management - formed perception of other
6 ways to perceive environment:

Formality
Warmth
Privacy
Familiarity
Constraint
Distance
Reactions to Environment
Form of nonverbal comm. that impacts our interactions w/in it.
Chronemics
Way time is used to
structure interaction
Power & Role Differences
Monochronic Culture
Punctuality & Schedules
Polychronic Cultures
Values greater flexibility; less scheduled
Facial Expressions
Communicates emotion & feelings
Presentation of Self

Goffman (1967)

Face can be...
Lost
Maintained
Protected
Enhanced
Ekman and Friesen (1969,1975)
Neutralization
- control to hide feelings

Masking
- hiding & replacing emotion

Intensification
- exaggerates feelings

Deintensification

- reduces intensity
Facial Management Techniques*
How do we do this in the digital world?
Eye Behavior
about 80% of info taken in visually (Morris,1985)

Eye contact associated w/trustworthiness
Stimulates Arousal
Shows need to interact
Deception Cues
Haptics
Study of touch face-to-face & online; how?
Touch ethic - beliefs and preferences for touch
Functional/Professional
Serves a specific purpose
Social/Polite
Connected to Cultural Norms
Friendship/Warmth
Platonic affection & support
Love/Intimacy
Always personal,
sometimes sexual
Appropriateness of Touch
3 aspects determine appropriateness:
Location
Duration
Intensity
Culture
Contact vs. Noncontact Cultures
This nonverbal says
a lot about...
Relationship btwn people
The person you are
What are we?
Physical Appearance
Observable traits of body & extensions
Physical Attractiveness
Beauty derived from cultures
Personal Artifacts
Objects represent identities, interests, backgrounds
Body type, shape, size
Somatyping – classifying people according to body type

DQ

Improving Nonverbal
Communication
Nonverbal immediacy- closeness inducing nonverbals
Nonverbal Immediacy Includes:
Touching someone (nonviolent)
Smiling
Orienting body towards person
Looking at person
Animated vocal cues
The more nonverbally immediate you are, the more people will...
like you
work with you
learn from you
Objectives
Identify the purpose of nonverbals
Identify the various forms of nonverbals
Compare and contrast the different forms of nonverbals
Summary
What is the purpose of nonverbals?

What types of nonverbals are there?

How does immediacy affect our lives?
What about this environment?
Full transcript