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BIODIVERSITY

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Dayne Angeles

on 12 February 2015

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Transcript of BIODIVERSITY

BIODIVERSITY
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
What is BIODIVERSITY?
Biodiversity
refrers to a variety
of life on earth today that consists of many millions of distinct biological species, the diversity of genes, together with the places
where they are found,such
as deserts, forests, and
coral reefs
Importance of Biodiversity
The Philippine Biodiversity
According to
Dr. Terrence Gosliner
, the leader of the 2012
Philippine Biodiversity Expedition
, the Philippines was regarded as one of the biodiversity hotspot in the world. This means that the country is one of the world's biologically riches but has the most threatens ecosystems.
The Philippine has high species diversity in some groups of organism and a very high level of endemism. Endemic species is a species Which is only found in a given region or location and nowhere else in the world.
Mammals
Concept Micro
Biodiversity
refers to a variety of life
on earth today that consists of many
millions o distinct biological species, the diversity of genes in the species, together with the places where they are found,
such as deserts, forests, and coral reefs.
The Philippines is regarded as one of
the world's biologically richest but
has most threatened
ecosystem.
Important
Fact:
since the living world is
not widely considered in
terms of species, biodiversity
is very commonly used as a
synonym of
species diversity
,
which is number of species
or habitat.
species Diversity
It is amazing to know that according to
science, there are more than 117 million
species of plants, animals, and other
microorganism as of 2010 that have been
discovered and named; while they also believe
that there are millions more that are unknown.
There are many more species, especially in
the word's rainforests and ocean that
have not been discovered yet.
Current
Number of
Species in
the World
1,740,330
Vertebrate
Animals
Invertebrate Animals
Insects- 1,000,000

Spiders and scorpion- 102,248

Mollusks- 85,00

Crustaceans- 47,000

Corals- 2,175

Others- 68,827
Total- 1,305,250
Plants
Flowering plant
(angiosperm)- 281,821

Conifers (gymnosperms)- 1,021

ferns and horsetail- 12,000

Mosses- 16,236

Red and green
algae- 10,134

Total- 321,212
Others
Lichen- 17,000

Mushrooms- 31,496

Brown algae- 3,067

Total - 51,563

Total-1,740,330
Mammals- 5,490

Birds-

9,998

Reptiles- 9,084

Amphibians-

6,433

Fishes-

6,433


Total- 62,305

Trivia:
Scientists have
discovered a fish living in forest
swamps on the Indonesian island
of Sumatra that is only 7.9mm
long. The species of fish belongs
to the carp family and is called
Paedocypris progenetica . It is
the world's smallest
vertebrate or backboned
animal.
According to The Convention about Life on Earth, Convention on Biodiversity website "at least 40% of the world's economy and 80% of the needs of the poor are derived from biological resources. In addition, the richer the diversity of life, the greater the opportunity for medical discoveries, economic development, and adaptive responses to such new challenges as climate change
The
said Convention summarizes what a healthy biodiversity provides, a number of natural services for every one:
1.)
Ecosystem services, such as
protection of the different resources of water
protection and soil formation
storage and recycling of materials
absorption and breakdown of population
contribution to climate stability
maintenance of ecosystem
Recovery from unpredictable events
2.)
Biological resources such as
Food
Medical resources and pharmaceutical drugs
Wood products
Ornamental plants
Breeding stocks, population reservoirs
Future resource
Diversity of genes, species and ecosystem
3.)
Social Benefits such as
Research, education, and monitoring
Recreation and tourism
Cultural values
BIODIVERSITY boosts ecosystem productivity where each species, no matter how small, all have an important role to play
Diversity and Endemism
Taxonomical group Species Endemic Species Percentage
Endemism
Plants 9,253 6,091 65.8

Mammals 167 102 61.1

Birds 535 186 34.8

Reptiles 237 160 67.5

Amphibians 89 76 85.4

Freshwater Fishes 281 67 23.8
Plants
One-third of more than 9,250 vascular plants species native to the Philippines are endemic. Ginger, begonias, gesneriads, orchids, pandans, and dipterocarps are particularly high in endemic species
Ginger
Pandan
Orchid
Begonias
Gesneriad
There are more than 150 species of palms and dipterocarps in the world in the hotspots, and around two-thirds of these are found nowhere else in the world.
Other important tree species here include giant figs, which provide food for fruit bats, parrots, and monkeys. Among the endemic fruit trees in the Philippines are
durian
,
pili
,
mabolo
, and
bignay
.
Durian
Pili
Bignay
Mabolo
At least 165 mammal species are found in the Philippine hotspot, and over 100 of those are endemic, one of the highest levels of mammal endemism in any hotspot. The largest and most impressive buffalo that lives only in Mindoro Island. Other mammals endemic to the Philippines include dugong or sea crows, Visayan and Philippine warty pigs, the Calamianes hog-deer, and the Visayan spotted on the islands of Negros, Masbate, and Panay; and the golden-capped fruit bat, which is considered as the world's largest bat.
Golden-capped fruit bat
Dugong
Other endemic and endangered species of mammals are the following:
a.)
Philippine tarsier
which measures only about only 12 centimeters long and found in the Islands of Samar, Leyte, Bohol, and Mindanao

b.)
Pilandok
, which only 4o centimeters at the shoulder level and considered as the world's smallest hoofed mammal-the Philippines mouse deer

c.)
Kagwang
, the flying lemur, which used to abound in the wilderness of Basilan, Leyte, Samar, Bohol, and Mindanao.
Birds
There are over 530 birds species found in the Philippine hotspot; about 185 of these are endemic and over 60 are threatened. BirdLife International has identified seven Endemic Bird Areas in the hotspot: Mindoro, Luzon, Negros and Panay, Cebu, Mindanao and Eastern Visayas, the Sulu archipelago, and Palawan.
Perhaps, the best-known birds species in the Philippines is the Philippine eagle, the second largest eagle in the world. The Philippine eagle breeds only in primary
Reptile
Reptiles are represented by about 231 species, some 160 of which endemic. An endemic freshwater crocodile is considered the most threatened crocodile in the world. the latest discovery of a population of this species in the Sierra Madre of Luzon brings new hope for it's conservation, as does the implementation of projects aimed t raising awareness and protecting the crocodile's habit. The Crocodile Rehabilitation, Observance and Conservation
(CROC) Project of the Mubuwaya Foundation is active in carrying out such projects.
Other unique and threatened reptiles includes Gray's monitor and the Philippine pond turtle. A newly discovered monitor lizard,
Varanus mabitang
, from Panay is only the second monitor species known in the world that specialize on the fruit diet.
Sulu Hornbill
Palawan
Peacock
Philippine Eagle
Varanus Mabitang
Philippine pond turtle
Amphibians
There are nearly 90 amphibians
species in the hotspot, almost 85% of
which are endemic; these numbers continue to increase
, with the continuing discovery and description of new
species. on interesting amphibians, the panther flying
frog; has special adaptations for gliding , including extra
flaps of skin and webbing between fingers and toes to generate lift during glides. The frog glides down from
trees to breed in plants suspended above stagnant
bodies of water. The hotspot is also home to Philippines
flat-headed frog, one of the world's most primitive frog species, which can be found in busuanga, and Culion in Palawan.
Panther Flying Frog
Philippine flat-headed Frog
Freshwater Fishes
Freshwater fishes consist more than 280 inland fish, including 9 endemic genera and more than 65 species, many of which are
confined to single lakes. An example is
Sardenilla Tawilis
, a sardine found only in Taal Lake. Sadly, Lake Lanao, in Mindanao, seems
likely to become a site of one of the hotspot's worst extinction catastrophes, with nearly all of the lake's fish species now almost
extinct, primarily due to the introduction of exotic species like
tilapia. Whale sharks are considered as the largest fish on the
world. One of the world's smallest freshwater fish,
Pandaka
Pygmaea
, now vanishing, is found in the Philippines. The world's
smallest commercial fish, sinarapan, is found only in Lakes Bato
and Buhi in Camarines Sur province
Other endangered and endemic under the sea are blue-spotted angelfish, Philippine anchovary: dilis or bolinao, and exyrias goby or biya.
Whale Shark
Pandaka Pygmaea
Sinarapan
Angelfish
Dilis
Biya
Full transcript