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The Qing Dynasty
Transcript of The Qing Dynasty
>1630's, empire is dissatisfied with Ming
>1644, rebels capture Beijing
>last Ming emperor commits suicide
>emperor's advisers asked Manchus to help get the rebellion under control
>Manchu took over Beijing
>finished conquest of all former Chinese territory in 1681
>The Manchu adopted the name "Qing" for their dynasty Rise of the Qing Dynasty Fall of the Qing >early 1900's, much civil unrest in China
>Emperor issued a decree now known as "Late Qing Reform".
>lead to a revolutionary national education system
>despite reforms, sudden death of emperor lead to weakness in government
>2-year-old was declared emperor and was set up with regancy and a royal cabinet
>disapproved of by many
>resulted in rebellion
>Republic of China was formed in October of 1911 The Taiping Rebellion >Rebellion led by Hong Xiuquan > Believed, because of a vision, that he was the brother of Jesus. Making him the Asian Son of God. 1850-1864 >20 to 30 million people killed over course of the rebellion Opium Wars 1839-1842, 1856-1860 Emperors Emperor Yongzheng reigned 1722-1735 Emperor Kangxi reigned 1661-1721 >4th emperor of Qing
>longest reigning emperor ever
>suppressed the revolt of the Three Feudataries
>forced the Kingdom of Tungning on Tiwan to submit to Qing rule
>Blocked Tzarist Russia on the Amur River and expanded the empire to the north-west
>compilation of the Kongxi Dictionary Art >very hard working man
>His main goal was to create an effective government at minimal expense.
>used military force to preserve the dynasty's position
>usurped the throne
>reign was efficient, despotic, and vigorous
>death was assumed to be caused by heavy work load
>continued and era of peace and prosperity
>cracked down on corruption and waste
>reformed financial administration
>formed the Grand Council
>in charge of military affairs
>later attained a more important role of a privy council (advises the head of state of a nation). Emperor Qianlong >6th Qing emperor
>4th son of Emperor Yongzheng
>gave power to his son so he would not rule longer than his grandfather (Kungxi) reigned 1735-1796 Emperor Xuontong reigned 1908-1912 >12th and final Qing emperor
>declared emperor at age 2
>held power until his death Boxer Rebellion In 1898 people started to join a secret society known as I-ho ch'üan.
We know them as the boxers.
Early in the rebellion they wanted to overthrow the Qing.
Eventually one of the empresses supported their cause.
The empress ordered all foreigners to be killed.
This is one of the reasons why the Dynasty ended. Qing Architecture The Qing's architecture was similar to the Mings.
Small refinements were added.
The Qing had very advanced architecture.
Their designs and shapes were very unique.
They helped introduce glass, and started using brick and stone. Religions Confucianism was the main religion.
Taoism was also a popular religion in China.
Christianity made its way into China at the end of the Ming dynasty.
The Christians tried to bring missionaries into China, but they were all kicked out.
Islam was a notable religion during the Qing dynasty.
They revolted against the Qing many times. Foreign Policy The Qing blamed many of the problems of the Ming dynasty on contact with the peoples outside of China. Because of this, the Qing were very reluctant to make any contact with the Western world. Although there was heavy trade along the Silk Roads, China tended to keep some limits on this. For example, in the 1700's and early 1800's, the Qing emperors only accepted silver as payment from European traders. This was very costly, and led to the British practice of paying the Chinese in opium, which eventually led to the Chinese ban on smoking opium and then to the Opium Wars in 1839 and 1856. It is thus debatable the the Qing's reactionary policies are the very thing that brought about their downfall. The Panthay Rebellion and Dungan Revolt 1856-1873 >These were basically follow-ups to the Taiping rebellion.
>Led by Muslims and the Miao
> Miao used as an umbrella term for a group of minorities
>The Dungan revolt resulted in around 10 million deaths and the Panthay rebelion resulted in about 1 million deaths. 1862-1877 In the early 1700's, Great Britan began paying Chinese traders in opium instead of silver. Over the course of the next century, most of China began smoking opium. The Qing emperor banned the smoking of opium in China in 1813, but the practice continued. In 1839 the emperor's "anti-opium comissioner" Lin Ze-xu confiscated about 20,000 chests of opium (worth somewhere in the neighborhood of nine million dollars) from traders and had it publicly burned. Cause: Lin Ze-xu declared the Chinese port at Canton closed to all Europeans. The British navy set up a blockade around the port and then soundly trounced the Chinese military. Despite their almost comical defeat, Chinese propaganda from the time portrays the first Opium War as victory for China. First Opium War Consequences: Great Britain forced the Chinese government to sign a series of treaties opening Chinese ports to foreign trade and giving Great Britain abnormally high trade status. The Chinese were also forced to pay several large fees to the British, including reimbursing the traders whose opium had been destroyed. Events: Second Opium War Cause: In the years following the first Opium War, the British forced more and more treaties on the Chinese government. These generally entailed increasing Great Britain's profit and trade benefits, and created a good deal of tension among the Chinese people. When, in 1856, Chinese officials boarded the British ship Arrow, which they suspected to be involved in smuggling, British negotiators argued that this violated the Treaty of Nanking. Events: British, French, Russian, and U.S. forces joined together and launched a heavy assault on China from all sides. The Chinese military was quickly subdued. When Chinese officials stalled the signing of treaties, several forts and towns were shelled. Affects: After the Chinese defeat, France, Russia, and the United States forced treaties on China similar to those enacted by Great Britain. All Chinese ports were opened to foreign trade, foreigners with passports could travel freely through China, and Chinese Christians were granted property rights. Battles of the Taiping Rebellion The Battle of Nanjing
(Taking the City) The Battle of Nanking (1st)
(Defending the City) Rebel Forces:
550,000 Imperial Forces:
30,000 Imperial, 10,000 Rebel, 30,000 Civilian Result: The Rebels are able to occupy Nanjing. Nanjing name changed to Tianjing and becomes capitol of the Taiping Rebelion 3/8/1853-3/19/1853 6/1/1856 Rebel Forces:
460,000 Imperial Forces:
Unspecified Rebel Result: The Rebels are able to defend their capitol against Qing forces from retaking the city. Proves Taiping sovereignty and South east China secedes to rebels. 1898-1900 Causes: Followers of Hong Xiuquan are growing tired of the Qing dynasty and take over Nanjung and proclaimed it as their capitol. Causes: Qing forces attempt to retake Nanjing from the rebels to end the Taiping rebellion Trade >Big exporters of tea, silk, and porcelain
>The Qing dynasty made many improvements that helped the efficiency of one of their major trade corridors, the Grand Canal
>The Qing were careful about giving out trade licenses and charters to start mines and trading groups in fear that wealthy merchants could become more powerful than the government
>The above in combination with their closed off technology trade with the world most likely caused China to fall so far behind from the world
> Many times would only allow trade incomeing trade to be silver Boxer Rebellion Hong Xiuquan's Visions Ban on Smoking Opium Convention of Peking Old Country New World In 1644, the Manchu Mongols from north of China captured Bejing, ending the Ming Dynasty. They went on to capture all of China and formed a new dynasty: the Qing. Because of their lack of large-scale executive experience, the new Qing regeme made almost all their laws and policies the exact opposite of what the Ming before them had done. 1644 Capture of Bejing 1860 In 1860 a combined force of French and British soldiers marched on the Forbidden City. Upon the City's capture, Prince Gong of the Qing was forced to ratify the Treaty of Tientsin and several other "unequal treaties." Among the effects of these treaties were that a great number of Chinese ports were opened to foreign trade, foreign ships (including warships) could sail freely through Chinese waters, and there was essentially religious freedom in China (for a short time). This marked the end of the Second Opium War, and increased the Chinese enmity toward outsiders. 1911 Xinhai Revolution After centuries of being in power, the Qing court continued to cling to traditional Chinese government and technology. Although they held political power, the Manchu were a very small population relative to the Han majority. After several small revolts were violently stamped out, a large number of anti-Qing groups rose up and over threw the Manchu government. The Kuomintang nationalist group formed the Republic of China, ending the three hundred year Qing rule and the Chinese dynastic cycle. Economy >About 80% of the population were farmers
>There were markets everywhere, enough so that most people lived within a day's travel of a market
>All Chinese citizens were required to pay taxes in currency, not goods
>The Qing used three kinds of currency
>Copper coins had the least value
>Silver coins were for large transactions
>Paper money, invented in China in the 1100's, was sometimes used
>Banks were created so that people didn't have to carry their money everywhere and risk getting robbed 1900 After the ratification of the Convention of Peking, large numbers of European missionaries were sent into China to try to evangelize the Chinese people. This greatly displeased the Qing emperors and many of the people in Qing China. In 1900, members of the Righteous Harmony Society, known by the Europeans as "boxers," began attacking Europeans and Chinese Christians. After a brief hesitation, the Qing emperor gave the Boxers his support. European armies came in and fought off the Boxers, occupied China, and extracted more treaties. 1813 For the majority of their rule, the Qing emperors required foreign traders to pay for goods in silver. This was a very expensive commodity, and in 1720's English merchants began paying in opium instead. Over the next century, the majority of men in China became addicted to opium, enough so that there was a dramatic decrease in the country's food production and civil services. In 1813, the emperor outlawed importing and smoking opium in China. However, the practice continued, and led to the first Opium War and eventually the fall of the Qing dynasty. 1837 After having a severer nervous breakdown, an aspiring Chinese scholar named Hong Xiuquan began having terrible nightmares. After hearing about Christianity, Xiuquan decided that his visions meant that he was the brother of Jesus and that he was meant to destroy the Confucian beliefs and the Qing rulers. Demographic Change At the start of the Qing dynasty the population was at about 150 million people.
Throughout the few hundred years of the dynasty there were many rebellions in which millions of people died.
With the loss of life the population at the end of the dynasty was getting close to 500 million people.
The qing dynasty was had massive population growth throughout it. Class Structure In the top of the Qing dynasty's classes there is the rich land owners and religious leaders.
Right under them are the farmers.
Last on the list is the merchants.
In the lower classes during the Qing dynasty people were split up as good or bad people. A good and a bad person cannot get married together. Gender Relations Women were treated differently in the Qing dynasty.
At the start of the Dynasty they tried to make foot binding illegal.
The ruling was withdrawn later because they could not enforce it.
Women were treated as the property of the man that was the head of the house they were living in.
They did not have many rights and had to listen to men as well. 1864 Taiping Rebellion Ended After teaching for several years, Hong Xiuquan began the Taiping Rebellion in 1850. After several small victories, Xiuquan estblished the "Heavenly Kingdom," which ruled about 30 million people at its height. The Qing government finally managed to subdue the rebel forces in 1864, ending one of the largest slaughters in history. It is estimated that 20 million people were killed, and most were civilians. Art There were three principal groups of artists that were working during the Qing.
The Professional Artists
The Traditionalists were artists who sought to revitalize painting through the creative reinterpretation of past models.
The Individualists were artists who practiced a deeply personal form of art that often carried a strong message of political protest.
The Professional Artists were ones who served at the Manchu court. Art Poetry has always been an important part of Chinese literature.
It has been used in expressing emotion, political events (wars and rebellions), and protests.
During the early Qing period fiction was looked down upon, but in later times, due to many political changes such as losing wars, Chinese literature responded by accepting fiction.
The use of repetition was also widely used to express ones feelings and emotions in greater intensity Literature Music The art of traditional opera developed rapidly and diversely in the Qing.
When these distinctive opera styles were performed at the capital of Beijing, artists combined the essence of the different styles and created Beijing opera (now one of the cornerstones of Chinese culture).
Instruments used during the Qing:
Horse-Headed Fiddle-String Instrument
Flute-Wind Instrument This instrument is made out of wood and has 2 strings with a horse shaped scroll at the top of the instrument. The f-holes carved in the body of the instrument can also be shaped as a horse. The fiddle is played vertically while sitting down and provides a soothing pleasant sound. This beautiful instrument is also made out of wood. There are multiple strings used in this instrument. The lute was such a popular instrument that it was mentioned in many poems and pieces of literature. People like to describe the sound of this instrument as big and small pearls dropping onto a jade plate. Er-Hu directly translated from mandarin means "two" and "box." This instrument is made out of wood and has a long, thin neck where 2 strings run along. It is commonly played while sitting down. The Er-Hu projects a sad-like sound and is usually associated with sad events. This instrument was originally made from bone but was later made from bamboo for "commoners" to play. This wind instrument has 6 holes used for ones fingers to produce different sounds. The flute produces a very leisurely and mellifluous sound and often reminds people of a picture of a farmer riding on a bull while playing a flute. Culture One main cultural effect was one with clothing.
The Qing Dynasty did not encourage any of the Han Dynasty's traditional clothing and they required everyone to wear Manchu-style traditional clothing.
Foot-binding was very popular during the earlier dynasties in China but by the end of the Qing, many women started protests about foot-binding saying it was inhumane and disrespectful to women.
Men were required to have long hair either braided or put down in a pony-tail. This was the Manchu-style tradition. Social Life People in the Qing dynasty usually respected their emperors. The emperors lowered taxes, and promoted a number of public works projects to improve the lives of the people they ruled.
The Qing emperors did not care to control the population. Instead, they let the population boom to an astonishing number of 300 million people making China the most populous country on Earth.
In 1645, men all around China were required to shave their heads except for a long ponytail in the back running all the way down to their legs. Kang Xi came into power as an emperor and decided to terminate 3 Han generals who were gaining too much power. The 3 generals gained so much power that they decided to try and overthrow the Qing dynasty and restart the Ming dynasty. They generals failed and Kang Xi then basically controlled all of China (Qing territory). Kang Xi continued his reign for an astonishing 60 years making his reign the longest in Chinese history. Kang Xi as Emperor 1662 Qianlong Comes to Power 1736 Qianlong is Kang Xi's grandson. Qianlong ruled for an amazing 59 years and could have continued his reign but he respectfully stepped off the throne so he would not rule longer than his grandfather did (60 years). During his reign, Qianlong built one of the largest militaries during that time. He also won 10 different wars against countries such as Nepal, Burma, Taiwan, and Vietnam and expanded the territory of the Qing dynasty. Er-Hu Lute Horse-Headed Fiddle Flute