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Patterns of Inheritance Chapter 9

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Jonathan Richter

on 20 May 2014

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Transcript of Patterns of Inheritance Chapter 9

Patterns of Inheritance Chapter 9
Chromosome Theory of Inheritance:
genes are located at specific positions on Chromosomes and that the behavior of the chromosome during meiosis and fertilization accounts for the
inheritance pattern.

sperm carrying pollen released from stamen land on egg of carpel of the same flower (plant)
fertilization of sperm from one plant to egg of another.
: purebred organisms that were identical to parent.
: offspring of two different purebred organisms.
: alternative form of genes
Law of segregation:
sperm or egg carries one allele for each inherited trait, as the pairs of alleles sperate during gamete formation
: ratio of the physical traits of organism
: genetic makeup ratio (typically more variety here)

Law of Independent Assortment
: each pair of alleles in 2+ hybrid crosses are sorted separately from other pairs in gamete formation, not affecting the traits of other gametes.
: mating between an individual of a dominant phenotype with an unknown genotype to a homozygous recessive individual.
Rule of Multiplication
: probability that independent events (this case the accuracy of the Punnette Square)
be accurate
: information of from observing phenotypes in a family tree to determine the genotype of each individuals. (recessive genes are most helpful)
: Women DONT BE SEXIST THIS IS ONLY TRUE FOR SEX LINKED MEN CAN BE CARRIERS FOR EVERYTHING ELSE who have 1 copy of a recessive disorder that does not show signs of the disorder but can pass it on to her offspring.
Incomplete Dominance
: F1 hybrids have a physical appearance that is in between their parents (P generation)
: impact of a single gene/allele on more than one characteristic
Inheritance: variation along a continuum where 2+ genes have an effect and create a wide range of results in a population.
Sex linked gene
: genes with characteristics that are not related to the sex of the organism but are located on the sex genes ( X and Y chromosomes)
: specific locations of genes on chromosomes.
Sex Linked Genes/traits
Family Pedigrees
Scientists (Baptists and Zoologists)
Law of Segregation:
The Alleles (genes) separate during Meiosis and each gamete (sperm/egg) takes one of the genes which reappear within the zygote
Law of Independent Assortment: (each trait inherits individually)
Applies to two or more linked Genes (in dihybrid cross or more)
The two traits do separate in the gametes and thus a Tall Round crossed with a Short Straight could have offspring of Short Round, Tall Straight, Short Straight, and Tall Round
Mendel's Laws
When the Filial1 Generation has a hybrid phenotype
This phenotype is a mix of the Parent Generation
Snapdragon plant:
Red is dominant over White but when RR is crossed with rr and Rr is formed, The F1 Generation is Pink
The recessive trait appears slightly changing the appearance
high level of cholesterol due to lack of LDL receptors (remove cholesterol)
HH normal, Hh half as many 2x more hh-non 5x as much (cholesterol)
Incomplete Dominance
*All Recessive*
Red-Green Color Blindness:
Most common in males because it is only on the X chromosome
Normal people can see 150 colors Red-Green can see fewer than 25
Hemophiliacs bleed excessively due to the lack of blood clotters
Royal Families had it because of inbreeding
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
weakening or loss of muscle
By 12 cannot stand and by 20 dead
Human Disorders (sex linked)
Morgan's/Sturtevant's Additions: Genetic Recombination
Multiple Alleles control one trait
ABO blood groups: Humans (if mixed some combinations can clump and kill) ONLY AB IS CO-DOMINANT
The Carbohydrate that is on top of Red Blood Cells
A, B, or O are the three alleles
A has one type of carbohydrate
B has another type of carbohydrate
O is blood that does not have any
Ai-heterozygous A vs AA-homozygous A
Bi-heterozygous B vs BB-homozygous B
ii-homozygous O (recessive)
Mix with:
O everything universal donor but not recipient
Do not introduce new substances (proteins)
DNA does not change from father from son
300 million years ago the XY turned into what they are today and not autosomes
Because the Y does not change the Lemba were traced back to descendants of ancient jews
The Tell Tale Y Chromosome
Human Disorders
All about Probability and Punnett Squares
Humans and Determination
Fruit Flies
Miscellaneous Information
Created By: Jonathan Richter
Editors: NONE I DID THE WHOLE DAMN THING [ Ethan did the vocab :) ]
Hope everyone enjoys it
Gregor Mendel
First to analyze patterns of inheritance in the 1860s Austria (Czech Republic)
Conducted Experiments on garden peas
They would grow quickly
Had several easily distinguishable traits
Bred plants with different characteristics to get different results
His Peas Could:
Self Fertilize: sperm lands on the same flower
Cross Fertilize: fertilization of egg or sperm from different organism
Be used in True Breeding: (purebred) genetically same plant as the parents
Built on Mendel and Darwin's Theories in the early 1900s
Worked the New York City Laboratory
Worked with fruit flies and bred them to try and create a new species
After millions of fruit flies he found a Sex Linked Trait White Eyes linked to the X chromosome
He discovered the first example of Crossing Over when:
His numbers were off for a GgLl X ggll fruit fly experiment (grey/black long/short wings)
Hypothesized that the GL gl was linked and that the Ggll and ggLl occurred through Crossing Over (Genetic Recombination
Genetic Recombination and New Combinations Alleles
This occurred with linked Genes
When this occurs the genes are non-parental
Recombination Frequency: Percentage of recombinant offspring among the total population
Linkage Maps
Morgan's Student Alfred H. Sturtevant
found that the distance between the genes due to the percentage of crossing over between specific traits and thus a map of where the genes were on the chromosomes could be created

Pleiotropy and Polygenic Inheritance
Impact of one gene on more than one characteristic
Sickle-Cell Disease
An allele produces abnormal hemoglobin which is hard, pointy, and triangular in shape
It gets clogged in blood vessels (capillaries)
Weakness, Pain, Organ Damage, and Paralysis
Heterozygous is healthy Homozygous is an issue
Heterozygous is an advantage in Africa where malaria attacks these sickle cells the body kills and it cannot survive
Polygenic Inheritance
Additive effects of two ore more genes on a single phenotype
Skin Color
Alleles A,B,C
Each allele has an effect and thus a massive amount of skin colors are created
Role of the Environment
Atmospheric conditions sun exposure
Working out change physical appearance but it will not be passed down generation by generation
Family trees are Family Pedigrees
Wild-Type Traits: most common traits among the population but not specifically dominant
Dominant Traits:
Freckles vs No Freckles
Widow's Peak vs Straight Hairline
Free Earlobe vs Attached Earlobe
Square = male Circle = female
Shaded = non-dominant trait
Carriers: Heterozygous and do not show the recessive trait
Cystic Fibrosis (recessive)
1/25 Europeans are Heterozygous
Thick mucus in the lungs, pancreas, and other organs
Interferes with:
Liver Function
No cure drugs and pounding of lungs can extend life past 5 (fatal by then normally)
Achondroplasia (dominant)
form of dwarfism (normal head and body small legs and arms
normally dead in the embroytic stages 1/25,000 live with it (50% chance to give to next generation)
Less of them because they die sooner or no reproduce
Huntington's Disease (dominant)
Degeneration of the nervous system
10-20 years then death
onset is late in life issues is that symptoms not present until after the people have had children which because dominant have high chance of getting it. (50%)
Traits that sit on the X or Y are sex linked genes
White Eye Trait
Generally in Males
Since Y chromosome is small it does not hold many alleles thus it acts as a recessive trait thus any trait on the X chromosome becomes the predominant trait
Thus in fruit flies only one recessive white eyed trait is needed in a male than the two needed in a female
There is an SRY gene that exists and forms testes and without it ovaries form
It is not fully understood.
The X-Y system is similar in mammals but not the same
Look at worksheet on Punnett Squares
the main part of the test is going to be this so review the worksheets
Remember to look at the sheet with all of the parts of the plant
Doesn't that Morgans flies break law of independent assortment??
The Law of Independent Assortment does not always work
genes on the same chromosome do not
Independent Assortment
I like the variety of backgrounds that you use Jonathan-Gracias this one was family tree related thus I thought it would be good.
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