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chapter 3--biological basis of behavior


Stacie Harris

on 10 March 2010

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Transcript of chapter 3--biological basis of behavior

Chapter 1 & 2--review
1. Melissa is participating in a study in which she is asked to carefully observe and report her conscious reactions to several stimuli. Melissa is most likely participating in a study conducted by a
a.humanist psychologist
b.behaviorist psychologist
c.structuralist psychologist
d.psychoanalytic psychologist
Which of the following is a medical doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating mental disorders?
a.a clinical psychologist
b.a counseling psychologist
c.a psychiatrist
d.a physiological psychologist
IQ score, age, weight, grade point average, and income are all examples of
A group of researchers conducts a study to determine if children’s performance is affected by the presence of other children. First, the children are taken to a room with no other children and timed while they complete a puzzle. Later, the same children are taken to a room with four other children and timed while they complete a similar puzzle. In this study, the length of time it takes to complete the puzzle would be
a.the independent variable
b.an extraneous variable
c.a control variable
d.the dependent variable
If we view an experiment as an attempt to establish a cause-effect relationship, the ___________ variable would be the cause, and the ___________ variable would be the effect.
a.dependent; independent
b.independent; dependent
c.control; experimental
d.independent; confounded
By definition, an extraneous variable is
a.a variable that affects the control group but not the experimental group
b.the same thing as a dependent variable
c.a variable that is completely irrelevant to both the independent and dependent variables
d.a variable, other than the independent variable, that may influence the dependent variable
Charley tells you that 17 out of the 30 students enrolled in his English class scored exactly 62 points on the last exam. Conceptually, this is the same as saying
a.the mean for that particular English exam was 62 points
b.the median for that particular English exam was 62 points
c.the standard deviation for that particular English exam was 62 points
d.the mode for that particular English exam was 62 points
When variability in a data set is large, the standard deviation will be __________; when variability is small, the standard deviation will be __________.
a.large; small
b.large; large
c.small; large
d.small; small
Suppose a researcher discovered a strong negative correlation between the length of people’s hair and the amount of money they paid for their automobile. In general, people who paid the least amount of money for their automobile also had
a.the longest hair
b.mid-length hair
c.the shortest hair
d.either extremely long or extremely short hair
Suppose that students who work more hours at their jobs tend to have lower grade point averages, and also tend to get less sleep. If we were to correlate the two variables of grade point average and number of hours of sleep, we would find that the correlation coefficient is
a.greater than one
b.equal to zero
c.less than zero
d.greater than zero, but less than one
Of the following, the correlation coefficient that indicates the weakest relationship between the two variables being measured is
Samantha took part in an experiment where she was told she would be participating in a study concerning the relationship between future goals and school grades. She was required to sit alone in a room with a plate of cookies in front of her for 30 minutes, after that she was asked to complete a brief questionnaire about her future goals and plans. After she completed the survey Samantha was told that the researchers were not interested in her answers to the questionnaire, instead they actually counted the number of cookies Samantha ate while in the room alone. In this case, it would appear that the researchers who conducted the experiment used
a.a double–blind procedure
b.experimenter bias
d.a social desirability bias
Studies that have investigated the influence of anecdotal information have found that
a.people are not influenced by anecdotal information, and tend to view it as non-representative and biased
b.people tend to be influenced by anecdotal information, even when they are forewarned that the information is not representative
c.people are only influenced by anecdotal evidence when they have not been forewarned that it may be misleading
d.people are only influenced by anecdotal evidence when it is provided by someone they know and trust
The major advantage of the experimental method over the correlational approach is that the experimental method
a.permits one to make causal conclusions
b.allows for prediction
c.is generally less artificial than correlational procedures
d.permits the study of people in groups
Answers: C, C, B, D, B
D, D, A, A, D, C, C, B, A
Chapter 3--The Biological Basis of Behavior
Neural Impulse
resting potential
action potential
Effect of myelin sheath on action potential
The Synapse
excitatory PSP
inhibitory PSP
Neurotransmitters and Behavior
and now...
brain plasticity
cerebral laterality
the two halves of the human brain
are not exactly alike
each hemisphere has functional
specializations--that is, neural functions
that are localized primarily in one
split brain research
the intact brain
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