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BIMBIMBIM

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Kate Lawrence

on 21 January 2014

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Transcript of BIMBIMBIM

BIM!
2016
1963
Ivan Sutherland develops SketchPad as a drawing assistant for part of his Ph.D dissertation.
1966
Tekla Corporation Originates
1976
4% construction cost savings are realised by the Scottish Special Housing association due to fully automated design, detailing and tendering tools being utilised.
Thompson, J, 2010. Constructing the Business Case Building Information Modelling. 1st ed. London: BSI & Building SMART.
1970
BIM concepts born
1977
BIM utilised by the Oxford Regional Health Authority to accelerate Hospital design using OXSYS
1981
GMW architects use RUCAPS software to design the largest University in the world
1983
The Royal Bank of Scotland in Islington becomes the first project incorporate 2D, 3D, thermal properties and be presented as a 4D walk through via one model
1991
Jacobus developed the Construction Simulation Toolkit as an interface between Walkthru and a CAD system
1978
Charles Trimble formulated Trimble navigation a ground-based navigation, location and timing system in the US
1984
Construction Systems Associates created PM Vision as commercially available visual simulation software enabling the sequencing of a construction project to be detailed using 3D CAD
1982
Development of ArchiCAD starts
Shepherd, L. M., 2004. Virtual Building for Construction Projects. Virtual Building for Construction Projects, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 6-12.
Bechtel produce 3D animated design review tool called Walkthru
1986
1987
Regarded as the first BIM product, Graphisoft ArchiCAD was released.
Archicad Interactive Training Guide. 2012. Archicad Interactive Training Guide. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.graphisoft.com/education/training_guides/download.html. [Accessed 29 November 2012].
MENSI completed a prototype scanning technology.
1990
2003
fourDscape released by Balfour Technology, enabling users to integrate and analyse multidimensional data collaboratively.
Bentley acquire Jacobus to develop Navigator. Sinclair Knight Merz (SKM) CAD Manager, Trevor Fox, used the software for expansion of an iron ore processing and exporting facility due to "its functionality; ease of use, implementation, and setup; low administration overheads; and open object architecture".
1997
Shepherd, L. M., 2004. Virtual Building for Construction Projects. Virtual Building for Construction Projects, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 6-12.
Image of an challenging engineering exercise SKM utilised the software during the project
1996
UK Chapter of BuildingSMART formed as an Industry Alliance for Interoperability.
1994
Development of IFC standard in order to address BIM interoperability.
1992
Trimble created real-time kinematic technology, allowing real-time updates via GPS.
Bentley launch first BIM based application to be run on Microstation.
Solibri Inc. formed in order to assure the quality of BIM
First version of IFC is released
Autodesk acquire Revit Technology Corporation.
2002
Trimble & Catapillar create technology that use design information and positioning technology to control machine tools.
2001
Trimble enabled internet based access for mobile workstations
2005
4D becomes a constituent information output of BIM, viewed by contractors as a 4D feasible tool as available commercial software increases due to increased BIM useage.
2007
Trimble acquires Tekla. “The integration of Tekla's BIM software solutions with Trimble's building construction estimating, project management and BIM-to-field solutions will enable a compelling set of productivity solutions for contractors around the world.”
- present
April
April
About Trimble - Company History. 2012. Trimble - About Trimble - Company History. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.trimble.com/corporate/about_history.aspx. [Accessed 24 November 2012].
2009
MicroStation V8i BIM applications created allowing real-time drawing views
2011
Government announce BIM adoption on public sector projects within the next 5 years.
Tekla BIMsight launched.
2012
National Building Specification (NBS) provided a BIM library of BIM suitable construction elements.
March
June
Consensus based BIM standard, NBIMS-US V2 is launched in the US.
2010
Lantek Systems launched Lantek SteelWork software benefiting the steel industry
2008
48% of the US use BIM in industry
Anonymous, 2009. McGraw-Hill Construction, The Business Value of BIM: Getting Building Information Modeling to the Bottom Line. Mining Media International, Denver.
Heathrow Terminal 5 airport opens. The project made record savings via BIM information sharing techniques
BIM use on all public sector projects made mandatory in Finland and Denmark
BIM becomes mandatory on all UK public sector projects
a brief history of BIM...
Artist's impression of the new Terminal 5 at Heathrow Airport. The terminal opened in April 2008 and the second phase opened in 2011. - Image - Airport Technology. 2012. Artist's impression of the new Terminal 5 at Heathrow Airport. The terminal opened in April 2008 and the second phase opened in 2011. - Image - Airport Technology. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.airport-technology.com/projects/heathrow5/heathrow57.html. [Accessed 02 December 2012].
Student Name:
Kate Lawrence
Student ID:
1026620
Module:
7AT003 Building Information Modeling - Application and Theory
Why BIM?
Life without BIM
Life with BIM
How can we use BIM?
Available Software Tools
Cost Software
Programming / Time Software
2D:
Visual objects that are constructed using two planes.
3D:
Visual objects constructed with perspectives.
3.5D
: Just like 3D but with limited object intelligence or movement. This, however, is not BIM.
4D:
Linking time attributes into the BIM model.
5D:
Models containing cost information and quantity schedules to aid speedy cost information production.
6D BIM:
The addition of facilities management, regarded as the most innovative and useful aspect.
AIM:
“Asset Information Model” - a managed information model that is used to manage, monitor and operate the asset.
AecXM:
The language used to presenting BIM information via the internet.
BIM server:
An object based database system.
BIM system:
A software system that allows utilisation of BIM data via different applications.
BIM tool:
Specific software that allows the manipulation of a model to produce a specific outcome or purpose.
Building Information Model:
Representing and building and its associated data via an object.
Building Information Modelling:
To describe the activity of creating a Building Information Model.
CDE:
“Common Data Environment” - used as a single source to collect, manage and distribute all project information.
Clash Detection:
An inspection of the 3D models identifies any irregularities (clashes) between various 3D objects and can then be identified, reported and rectified prior to construction.
COBie:
“Construction Operations Building Information Exchange” - often in a neutral spreadsheet format its used as a supply of data for the employer or operator for the commissioning, operation and management of a project.
Data:
Pre-analysed or interpreted information.
GDL:
“Geometric Descriptive Language” - programming objects using a scriptable language using a considerably smaller amount of memory.
Georeference:
Exactly locating something in the virtual world using co-ordinate systems to locate an object in its place and time. Research can then be undertaken into the effects of the model in its real-world context.
IFC:
“Industry Foundation Classes” - enabling different files to be opened in different softwares, preventing control via one software.
Information:
Data that has been analysed and re-produced so that it is suitable for interpretation (both by humans and electronically) and communication.
Integration:
Enabling efficient and effective collaboration of individuals and organisations’ behaviours and working practices.
Intelligent Objects:
Smart building components that can adapt to differing conditions.
Interoperability:
Allowing multiple organisations to exchange BIM data and operate using it to enable collaboration and smooth data exchange in practice.
Model Server:
Access to centrally located IFC information models to enable modification and viewing via the internet.
Multi File Approach:
Related drawings each forming part of the complete BIM model connected via various mechanisms to create differing views of the model.
NBIMS:
“National BIM Standard” - Under development it is the standard of how BIM information must be presented.
Object-Orientated:
A group of objects/programs that can process data, receive and send messages to differing objects/programs.
Prototype:
A model specifically created to test differing specifications impacts prior to implementation. Once developed construction can commence providing the prototype can successfully deliver the projects goals.
Schema (databases):
Abstract representation of model information.
Value network:
“Value networks represent the complexity, collaboration, and interrelationships of today’s organizations and environment.” Learn BIM: Glossaries Search. 2012. Learn BIM: Glossaries Search. [ONLINE] Available at:http://designatlantic.org/moodle/mod/glossary/showentry.php?courseid=1&concept=Value+network. [Accessed 18 November 2012].
BIMipedia
definitions and glossary of all things BIM.
Partnerships i.e. communication and trust problems
Contractor Conflict
Waste of money
Time Delays
Excessive printing
the benefits
Diagram showing areas where BIM benefits are being most realized.
BSi, 2010. BuildingSMART Constructing the business case Building Information Modelling. 1st ed. London: BSi and BuildingSMART. Pg.12
Lean Construction
Less waste:
time, cost, materials, labour = cost savings, reduced carbon footprint
Less rework
= time and cost savings
Less design repetition
One time data entry
, ie. reduction in repeat admin time and cost
Fewer costly changes during construction, using optimum levels of labour and materials
More off-site manufacture with higher quality control
Increased Communication
Realistic clear project expectations undertook by all
Clear knowledge of project and vision of what will be created
Information and any changes communicated in real time
Less potential for costly rework items
Project information stored in a structured online format available to all
More efficient and better value provided due to collaboration on projects.
Clash Detection
Enables Spacial Co-ordination prior to construction
= cost, time, labour, material savings and a complete working design prior to construction
Whole Life Costing
Green BIM
taken into consideration
The project designed with whole life costing taken into consideration to reduce the carbon footprint, operation costs, improve outputs etc.
Energy savings and lifecycle cost reductions made possible for the most efficient operation scenario.
Carbon and sustainability standards are to specified standards.
Climate change Act 2008 requires a 34% reduction in carbon emissions by 2020, 80% by 2050. Level 6 BIM requires zero net carbon emissions.
47% of UK carbon emissions due to construction and maintenance of buildings.
80% of in-use building emissions can be influenced by construction.
27% of UK emissions from housing.
10% of UK emissions from the manufacture and transport of construction materials.
60million tonnes of material of the 400million tonnes delivered to site each year is disposed of as waste due to damage and errors in ordering.
30% increase in carbon dioxide since the start of the Industrial Revolution, expected to be double that by 2100.
Effective building design on the London Olympic Velodrome saved 85,000 tonnes of embodied carbon.
BSI, 2010. 'Construction and Sustainable Development’ Plain English, Constructing Excellence, Section 2, p.5
Anon, 2010. Supporting material for the Low Carbon Construction IGT Report. Estimating the amount of CO2 emissions that the construction industry can influence, p.4.
BSI, 2010. ‘Construction and Sustainable Development’ Plain English, Constructing Excellence, Section 3, p.2
M, Baker, 2008. Time to bin industry’s lavish habits. Construction News, 7060
UK Green Building Council. 2012. Key statistics | UK Green Building Council. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ukgbc.org/content/key-statistics-0. [Accessed 06 December 2012].
Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd . 2011. London 2012 Sustainability Report. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.london2012.com/documents/sustainability/london-2012-sustainability-report-a-blueprint-for-change.pdf. [Accessed 06 December 12].
Simple changes to the design and construction techniques we use enabled by BIM on projects could reduce carbon emissions on each project:

Sustainable more thought through designs, e.g. in use emission considerations
Waste reduction in materials
Reduction in onsite operations
On time delivery
Right first time construction
Fabrication off site
Whole life operation considerations
Image showing current areas of a buildings life cycle
BSI, 2010. Supporting material for the Low Carbon Construction IGT Report. Estimating the amount of CO2 emissions that the construction industry can influence, Autumn 2010, p.3.
Anonymous, 2010. ESTIMATING THE AMOUNT OF CO2 EMISSIONS THAT THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY CAN INFLUENCE . 1st ed. London: BSI.
Carbon reduction on site
Time based construction and in-use simulations can be made
Used as a planning tool, errors and improvements in the construction sequence or design can be understood and made prior to construction
Can be used as a handbook of how to construct the project and/or elements in its construction
3D + Time = 4D
the forth dimension
Uses:
Spacial planning
Augmented reality
Visual construction process and sequence
Integrated with the Gantt chart it visually maps the project sequence reducing errors in scheduling, planning and co-ordination
Visual instruction manual –
how, what, where and when
Improve construction health and safety
(Koo and Fischer 2000;Songer et al 2001)
A construction schedule can be better more efficiently understood using 4D simulation than using traditional methods
Cost
Diagram demonstrating potential BIM project savings
Smith , D. K., 2007. AEC/CAD/BIM: the User Perspective. 1st ed. Washington: NIBS.
Cost Reduction
MacLeamy Curve
Design costs – early less costly changes made during design opposed to costly changes during construction or when in use
Reduced construction costs – correct levels of labour, materials, right first time approach, one-time data entry
Whole life costing tested at design stage and taken into account
Off site fabrication enabled as a low cost, best value energy efficient option that often improves quality
Software implementation cost proportional to the
potentially achieved outcomes
Thompson, J, 2010. Constructing the Business Case Building Information Modelling. 1st ed. London: BSI & Building SMART. P.13
see MacLeamy curve
BIM containing cost data enables:
Use as an estimating tool
Early rough and detailed estimates to be produced in the design stage
Quantity extractions / take off production
Interim payments
3D + 4D + Cost = 5D
the fifth dimension
Limitations:
How the existing standard methods of measurement integrate with BIM. i.e. IFCs.
QS’s are fearful of 5D BIM capabilities make their positions redundant
Facility Management tool
Useful as a learning tool for future projects
Asset information stored in the BIM -
useful for any changes/alterations later, ie. construction developments, replacements of items, location of plant, as a reference for operation and maintenance needs., e.g. COBie data storage detailing serial numbers of products, manuals, detailed as-built drawings etc. It will also be able to report on energy use and carbon footprint to ensure the building is running efficiently
Competitive Advantage
BIM use in business differentiates a company from others attracting new clients and repeat business
due to its known benefits such as the cost and time savings realised on complete projects, for example the 9% savings estimated during the construction phase of the Festival Place shopping centre in Basingstoke
Low cost methods available to everyone
Where ever possible there are at least two solutions so market influence is minimised.
Thompson, J, 2010. Constructing the Business Case Building Information Modelling. 1st ed. London: BSI & Building SMART. P.11
Planning
Contract drawing production
Detail drawing production
Environmental analysis
Spacial planning
Clash detection
Construction Management via 3D models with the addition of time (4D) and cost (5D), quantity take offs, cost library linking, review and analysis tools and supply chain management
BIM Uses
BIM Limitations
Who owns the BIM?
How much detail goes into the BIM?
Reluctance to share any innovation or specialist skills
The initial cost impact of BIM implementation may exclude some businesses
Open and Varifiable
Can be applied to all sized projects
Non-proprietary
Low cost methods available to everyone
All standards are measurable and can be tested
Design Software
Revit ArchiCad Cadsoft
SketchUp
Bentley Hevacomp
Bentley Tas Simulator
Asta PowerProject
Microsoft PowerProject
Primavera
Innovaya Simuation
Potential Future
Development Initiatives
Technological
Contractual
Cultural
Financial
Legislative
CGI & BIM
Economic
Laser scanning
Spacial co-ordination at design and construction stages
Cost checking via schedules enabled
Able to meet higher standards competitively
Due to reduced risk from greater co-ordination and productivity
Hard and software
Design and construction industry
Management and operation industry
Exploits and could create new exports of "BIM ready" product opportunities in order to maintain global leadership and create job opportunities for software developers and off site manufacture
BIM Implementation

Adoption of BIM implementation is increasing across the construction industry. Almost half of businesses taking part in a McGraw-Hill report are using BIM in practice compared to 27% two years previously, 67% of which reported positive ROI’s.
Strategically businesses must embrace BIM to keep up to date with future practice and trading opportunities.
WHY?
HOW?
BIM Whitepapers | MyBIMhub. 2013. BIM Whitepapers | MyBIMhub. [ONLINE] Available at: https://mybimhub.com/whitepapers.html. [Accessed 01 January 2013]. P.1.
Bespoke well planned implementation must be done systematically using the four phase approach.
The four phases are:
MyBIMhub. 2012. Login | Register | MyBIMhub. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mybimhub.com/featured/bim-in-practice-aec-interoperability.html. [Accessed 06 December 2012].
1. Assessment and valuation of available options:
Reviewing current capabilities
Ensuring employee engagement and willingness and senior managements support to adopt new changes/practice techniques
Understanding changes that will need to be implemented.
Determine implementation expectations/desired outputs.
Control the cash flow for implementation
Establish implementation legal implications
2. Preparing/pre-planning for the transition
Considerations into software interoperability
Establish qualifications of existing staff and training requirements
A plan of execution at each stage of the construction cycle, ie. from design to construction to maintenance, defining clearly with responsibilities, performance expectations and output requirements.
Dependant on the completeness and how highly levelled the model is depends on the stakeholder input and ability of BIM use in the operation and maintenance stage.
4. Gaining expertise and experience
3. Immediate transition/execution
Burt, B.A, 2009. BIM Interoperability The Promise and the Reality. Technology information and updates on the impact of technolgoy on structural engineering, [Online]. 1, 19-21. Available at:http://www.structuremag.org/Archives/2009-12/C-Technology-Burt-Dec09.pdf [Accessed 06 December 2012].
MyBIMhub, 2012. Login | Register | MyBIMhub. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mybimhub.com/featured/bim-in-practice-aec-interoperability.html. [Accessed 06 December 2012].
BIMequity, 2012. . [ONLINE] Available at: https://mybimhub.com/upload/featured/bim-implementation.pdf. [Accessed 23 December 2012].
Where is BIM in use?
St Helens and Knowsley
In 2008, the £350m project redeveloped a dual hospital in Merseyside six months via collaborative working and efficient information sharing. There was less waste and a 75-80% saving in design co-ordination was realised.
Palace Exchange
Part way through this £30m retail development in Enfield project Standard Methods and Procedures were adopted initially incurring restructuring drawing costs but benefiting by reduced labour hours/costs, cost certainty and improvement information sharing.
General Motors, Mitchigen
This plant extension in Michigan was given a tight rigid programme, utilising BIM tools the steel structure was completed 35 days ahead of schedule enabling the project to complete 5 weeks early with good cost savings.
Endeavour House, Stansted
Project cost savings of 9.8% and 18% savings on drawing production was realised on this office building project due to implementing CAD standards and procedures such as clash detection and spacial co-ordination on this project.
Bibliography
Pre-Construction Software
Autodesk Ecotect Analysis
IES Solutions Virtual Environment VE-Pro
Bentley Tas Simulator
DesignBuilder Vectorworks 2012
Synchro
BIMserver
Construction Software
Vela Field BIM
Bentley ConstrucSim
Tekla BIMsight
Glue - Horizontal Systems
Autodesk Revit
Operational Software
BIMX
Onuma System
Autodesk Revit
BIM Adoption.
Where are we?
BIM Maturity Levels
BSI, 2012. PAS 1192-2:2012 Draft v3.7.2, Building Information Management – Information requirements for the capital delivery phase of construction projects. British Standards Institute. P.3.
Level 0
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Requires a single information model and a fully collaborative approach across the design, delivery and subsequent building management. Regarded as the "holy grail"
Requires the production of 3D information modelling by all main members of the, (now) integrated, (rather than currently fragmented) design team. These 3D models can be fully integrated or separate, but the design development needs to be managed and co-ordinated using BS 1192:2007.
Use of CAD based 3D modelling during early design stages but information seldom used collaboratively. Often referred to "lonely BIM", although larger specialist subcontractors increasingly using 3D modelling and design co-ordination checks via specialist software
Largely defined as relying on 2D CAD files for production information with little if any common standards or processes in relation to the use of CAD. Most design practices, contractors and larger subcontractors have reached this level.
Central Government requires all major schemes from 2016 to be delivered using BIM Level 2 as a minimum

Recent NFB Survey, (BIM: Ready or Not? 2012), indicates that 74% of contractors and 81% of subcontractors are not familiar with BIM, yet government contracts currently represent more than 50% of the turnover


BIM will impact on the marketplace and successful players will need to adapt to BIM
BIM Adoption - Reality
NFB, 2012. BIM: Ready or not? The NFB BIM-readiness survey 2012. Room4 Consulting Ltd
BIM Adoption - Challenges
Technological
Cultural
Processes
Investing in, and getting to grips with new software
Accepting the need for interoperability of software across the industry as a whole
Developing a more collaborative and integrated working methods, including drawing closer to specialist designing trade contractors at a stage much earlier than in the past
Adopting an integrated, co-ordinated and structured approach to the design and delivery process using
BS1192:2007
PAS 1192:2012
ASAEC UK BIM Protocols
Revisions to traditional procurement routes and contracts to reflect the new ways of integrated working
Development and exploitation of the technology to analyse Time, (4D), Cost, (5D), and Facilities Management, (6D)
BIM maturity and the RIBA Plan of Work
RIBA has expanded its Plan of Work to identify key BIM activities

Specifically identifies 6 Data Drop points during the design development and delivery of the scheme which forms the stage report and will effectively become the quality control "Gateway" before moving on to the next RIBA Stage

Details of the contents of these Data Drops are still being finalised but AIA document E202 provides guidance on the likely appropriate level of detail needed at each stage
RIBA, 2012. BIM Overlay to the RIBA Outline Plan of Work. Sinclair, RIBA.
the 6th Dimension
Poor Quality
Unsatisfied Clients
WHAT IS
?
What is BIM?
"Building Information Modelling, (BIM), is a of a facility, creating a
about it forming a
its life cycle from earliest conception to demolition"
Construction Project Information Committee
digital representation
physical and functional characteristics
shared
knowledge resource for information
reliable
basis for discussions
What BIM is not
BIM is not 3D CAD - CAD defines an object with a series of lines

BIM defines the actual "parametric" object and includes:
Physical dimensions
Location
Position
Connections
Characteristics
System to which it belongs
Performance
Asset maintenance
Objects in BIM can link to, receive or export attributes – can't do that with CAD!
BIM represents a significant change in the way that the construction industry manages the design and subsequent delivery and management of buildings.
Anon, 2012. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bimtaskgroup.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/InvestorsReport-BIM.pdf. [Accessed 23 November 2012].

Anon, 2012. History. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.bim.bondbryan.com/basics/history/index.html. [Accessed 24 November 2012].

Anon, 2012. [ONLINE] Available at:http://dcom.arch.gatech.edu/class/COA8672/Readings/history/CHAPTERTWOffi1.pdf. [Accessed 24 November 2012].

Anon, 2009. McGraw-Hill Construction, The Business Value of BIM: Getting Building Information Modeling to the Bottom Line. Mining Media International, Denver

Baker, M., 2008. Time to bin industry’s lavish habits. Construction News, 7060

BIM FAQs | BIM Task Group. 2012. BIM FAQs | BIM Task Group. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bimtaskgroup.org/bim-faqs/. [Accessed 21 November 2012].

BIM Whitepapers | MyBIMhub. 2013. BIM Whitepapers | MyBIMhub. [ONLINE] Available at: https://mybimhub.com/whitepapers.html. [Accessed 01 January 2013].

BSI, 2012. PAS 1192-2:2012 Draft v3.7.2, Building Information Management – Information requirements for the capital delivery phase of construction projects. British Standards Institute.

BSI, 2010. Supporting material for the Low Carbon Construction IGT Report. Estimating the amount of CO2 emissions that the construction industry can influence, Autumn 2010.

Burt, B.A, 2009. BIM Interoperability The Promise and the Reality. Technology information and updates on the impact of technolgoy on structural engineering, [Online]. 1, 19-21. Available at:http://www.structuremag.org/Archives/2009-12/C-Technology-Burt-Dec09.pdf [Accessed 06 December 2012].

CIC, 2012. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.cic.org.uk/east/MM%20-%20CIC%20BIM.pdf. [Accessed 22 November 2012].

Delta T, 2012. Soft Landings adopted by central government. Delta T Magazine, November 2012. 4.

Eastman, C.M. 2008, BIM handbook: a guide to building information modeling for owners, managers designers, engineers, and contractors, Wiley, Chichester.

Koo, B. and Fischer, M. 2000. Feasibility study of 4D CAD in commercial construction. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, 126(4), p251-260

Laakso, M., Kiviniemi, A. 2012. The IFC standard - a review of history, development, and

MENS, 2012. MENSI - 3D Modeling Systems - 3D Scanners & 3D Modeling Software. [ONLINE] Available at: http://mensi.free.fr/english/aboutus.html. [Accessed 24 November 2012].

MyBIMhub. 2012. Login | Register | MyBIMhub. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mybimhub.com/featured/bim-in-practice-aec-interoperability.html. [Accessed 06 December 2012
NFB, 2012. BIM: Ready or not? The NFB BIM-readiness survey 2012. Room4 Consulting Ltd.

Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd . 2011. London 2012 Sustainability Report. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.london2012.com/documents/sustainability/london-2012-sustainability-report-a-blueprint-for-change.pdf. [Accessed 06 December 12].

RIBA, 2012. BIM Overlay to the RIBA Outline Plan of Work. Sinclair, RIBA.Shepherd, L. M., 2004. Virtual Building for Construction Projects. Virtual Building for Construction Projects, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 6-12.

Ross, G, 2012. BIM - Somethings to all people. 1st ed. Redditch: Capita Symonds.

Smith , D. K., 2007. AEC/CAD/BIM: the User Perspective. 1st ed. Washington: NIBS.

Standardization. Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITcon), Vol. 17, p. 134 - 161, http://www.itcon.org/2012/9.

Songer, A., Diekmann, J. and Karet, D. 2001. Animation-based construction schedule review. Construction Innovation, 181-190, April.

Sustainability and BIM. 2012. Sustainability and BIM. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.architecturalevangelist.com/building-information-modeling/sustainability-and-bim.html. [Accessed 28 November 2012].

Thompson, J, 2010. Constructing the Business Case Building Information Modelling. 1st ed. London: BSI & Building SMART.

Trimble, 2012. Trimble - About Trimble - Company History. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.trimble.com/corporate/about_history.aspx. [Accessed 24 November 2012].

UK Green Building Council, 2012. Key statistics | UK Green Building Council. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ukgbc.org/content/key-statistics-0. [Accessed 06 December 2012].
Usable Building Trust, 2009. The Soft Landings Framework. Edition. BSRIA.
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