Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Return to monumentality

No description
by

Aditya Godbole

on 23 May 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Return to monumentality

Mies Barcelona Pavilion
Return to
MONUMENTALITY

Mies Van De Rohe (1886 – 1969)
Introduce the concept 'return to monumentality' - use
Roth's
intoduction to the second phase of Modernism as your starting point
Spread of modernism from Germany to the world.

Rohe’s inspiration was the Dutch architect Berlage

Schinkel Schuler tradition
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ludwig_Mies_van_der_Rohe.jpg
• Old Neo Gothic church was destroyed because of bombing in World War 2

•Decision was made by (D’art Sacre (CDAS) to design a modern church by Le Corbusier

•Le Corbusier initially refused to design the church

•Later was convinced by the CDAS committee.

•Le Corbusier brief was actually the license to “go all the way” at Ronchamp, with the free rein of creating what he wanted.
Le Corbusier's brief.
Using illustrations describe the building in your own words
HOW and WHY has architect moved away from Miesian concept of universal space?
Is there any enigmatic, spiritual, even mysterious quality present in these buildings?
Do you find this a challenging building?
In what ways?
Le Corbusier (1887-1965)
Notre Dame du Haut Chapel, Ronchamp, France, 1950-54
http://www.nickjenkins.net/house/inspiration/corbusier.gif
http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2414/2436540343_6dc7fe2c90_z.jpg
Alvar Aalto: 1898-1976
http://home-interior-designing.blogspot.com.au/2011/05/alvar-aalto.html
Church of three Crosses at, Vuoksenniska, Finland 1956-59
http://www.flickr.com/photos/dog-pochi/6593348885/sizes/z/in/faves-40060758@N03/
Alvar Aalto's brief.
Using illustrations describe the building in your own words
HOW and WHY has architect moved away from Miesian concept of universal space?
Is there any enigmatic, spiritual, even mysterious quality present in these buildings?
Do you find this a challenging building?
In what ways?
Henry Matisse: 1869-1954
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Portrait_of_Henri_Matisse_1933_May_20.jpg
The Chapel of Rosary, Venice 1949-51
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/7/75/Matisse_Chapelle_panorama.jpg
Henry Matisse's brief.
Using illustrations describe the building in your own words
HOW and WHY has architect moved away from Miesian concept of universal space?
Is there any enigmatic, spiritual, even mysterious quality present in these buildings?
Do you find this a challenging building?
In what ways?
Louis kahn: 1901-1974
http://www.visualphotos.com/image/1x6469428/louis_kahn
Louis Kahn's brief.
Using illustrations describe the building in your own words
HOW and WHY has architect moved away from Miesian concept of universal space?
Is there any enigmatic, spiritual, even mysterious quality present in these buildings?
Do you find this a challenging building?
In what ways?
First Unitarian Church, New York, 1959-1967
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c9/First_Unitarian_Church_of_Rochester_NY_North_Side1231-4.jpg
• Location:
Ronchamp,
France.

• Date:
1955

• Building type:
Church

• Construction System:

Reinforced concrete

• Context:
Rural,
Mountains

• Style:
Expressionist
Modern
http://clochers.free.fr/base/ronchamp.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronchamp
Site plan
http://www.architectural-review.com/buildings/ronchamp-undermined-by-renzo-pianos-convent-france/8633378.article
•The Chapel of Notre Dame du Haut at Ronchamp stands on a hilltop in the foothills of the Vosges not far from the Jura.

•Chapel is placed at the high point on an East West axis.

•Approach route of the Chapel is from the Southeast.
Comparison
Notre Dame de Paris
Saint Peter's Basilica
Saint Gile's Church
http://revpatrickcomerford.blogspot.com.au/2010/06/travels-in-pugin-land.html
http://travelandtourismtoday.blogspot.com.au/2010/09/vatican-city-st-peters-basilica.html
http://historythroughart.wordpress.com/home/gothic/
Group 7
http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.aspx?sysId=13&IrisObjectId=5147&sysLanguage=en-en&itemPos=3&itemSort=en-en_sort_string1&itemCount=5&sysParentName=Home&sysParentId=11
http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.aspx?sysId=13&IrisObjectId=5147&sysLanguage=en-en&itemPos=3&itemSort=en-en_sort_string1&itemCount=5&sysParentName=Home&sysParentId=11
http://architecturalmoleskine.blogspot.com.au/2012/06/le-corbusier-chapel-of-notre-dame-du_30.html
http://architecturalmoleskine.blogspot.com.au/2012/06/le-corbusier-chapel-of-notre-dame-du_30.html
Structure
Heaviness of the form
Play of lights
A unique concept
Pyramid to comemorate
the war victims
http://content.lib.washington.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/buildings&CISOPTR=4539
Design
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Floor plan
http://architecturalmoleskine.blogspot.com.au/2012/06/le-corbusier-chapel-of-notre-dame-du_30.html
1 - Exterior chapel
2 - Main Altar
3 - West Chapel
4 - East Chapel
5 - South Chapel
6 - Different size windows with coloured glass
7 - Main entrance
http://architecturalmoleskine.blogspot.com.au/2012/06/le-corbusier-chapel-of-notre-dame-du_30.html
Section
Concept and Interpretations
Praying hands
A ship
A duck
+
+
=
North Easter Facade
Two brothers hugging
South Facade
North Western Facade
A head-covering
of a cleric (hat)
Modular system
http://www.robertlpeters.com/news/2008/07/page/2/
http://propsummit.com/viewtopic.php?t=2973&sid=1acd0faebb8f62ebb297b5bf7834981f
• Location:
First Unitarian Church,
Rochester, New York

• Date:
1959-1967

• Building type:
Church School

• Construction System:

Bricks and cast-in-place reinforced concrete
http://www.archdaily.com/84267/ad-classics-first-unitarian-church-of-rochester-louis-kahn/first-unitarian-church_bruce-coleman1/
http://www.architectural-review.com/essays/typology/typology-quarterly-museums/8640202.article
http://jldweb.wordpress.com/2012/07/31/the-truth-about-greece/exterior-of-the-propylaea-and-the-parthenon/
http://diluceinluce.blogspot.com.au/2011/03/ecclesiologia-architettonica-7-sacro.html
Universal Space
http://architecturalmoleskine.blogspot.com.au/2012/06/le-corbusier-chapel-of-notre-dame-du_30.html
Notre Dame Du Haut
Above the 'Acropolis'
Parthenon
Notre Dame Du Haut
http://www.archdaily.com/84267/ad-classics-first-unitarian-church-of-rochester-louis-kahn/first_unitarian_plan-greatbuildings/
History of the site
Monumental aspect & Materiality
Concept- Served and servant spaces
Study of lighting and space
Classical architecture
Pure
Geometry
Pagan Sun temple
A Roman Fortress
A fourth century Christian Santuary
A site for Pilgrimage for French and Germans alike.
http://www.factmonster.com/dk/encyclopedia/architecture.html
Floor Plan
1
2
3
4
2
2
7
8
6
5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Sanctuary
Classrooms
Lobby
Courtyard Entrance
Office
Work Room
Gallery
Study Room
Heavy
http://warrenlawson.wordpress.com/tag/raising-our-sights-architecturally/
Classical & Modern architecture
-Natural light played a very important role in Kahn's design.

-Light penetrated into his buildings through windows and openings in an interesting way.

-Light has always been a main component of design which provoked the expressive material qualities of the space.

-Kahn,'light is the maker of material, and material’s purpose is to cast a shadow'.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/danieljmarino/3152301037/lightbox/
Exterior
Interior
Approach

Monumental aspect
Materiality
Space
Light
Moved away from the Miesian concept of 'universal space'
Walls separating all five altars with the main space
The purpose or function of the building
Pilgrimage site of Mary, twice a year
Commomerate the war victims
The unique architectural form of the building
http://architecturalmoleskine.blogspot.com.au/2012/06/le-corbusier-chapel-of-notre-dame-du_30.html
Interior
Western Facade
Main Entrance
Why?

-Focus on function of spaces
-Learn from the past
-Believed that it can show the spirit of architecture
-Tried to present modern architecture in a monumentality way
-Wish to produce monuments to live longer than its own period.
http://joewalker.blogs.com/felixhominum/classical-architecture/
http://architectureassociate.blogspot.com.au/2012/12/barcelonapavilion-commentary-thesite_7943.html
http://meng-design200.blogspot.com.au/2011/01/2-le-corbusier.html
How?

-Influenced by ancient architecture and attempted to express its monumental essence
-Use heavy and monolitic bricks or concretes to express the massive weight of buildings
-Served and servant spaces
-Study of light
http://www.flickr.com/photos/32215181@N08/6780863737/in/set-72157625105132240/lightbox/
http://www.moma.org/modernteachers/large_image.php?id=242
Symbol - Ambulatory
The school became the wall which surronding the question
Corridor - Connection
http://dbsjeyaraj.com/dbsj/archives/16128
http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2414/2436540343_6dc7fe2c90_z.jpg
http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/ronchamp/


1901-Born in Saarama,Estonia.
1905-Emigrated to the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
1924-Graduated in University of Pennsylvania
1935-Established his architectural practice in Philadelphia

Favourite materials- Bricks and concretes
Favourite of idea- Master of study of sunlight.
Favourite form- Geometric shapes
BACKGROUND - Louis Kahn
http://www.archdaily.com/362554/light-matters-louis-kahn-and-the-power-of-shadow/
Miesian concept of universal space
The tenet of International style
Villa Savoye 1928-1931
Barcelona Pavilion 1928-1929

-In 1959, he was commissioned to design a new building for the First Unitarian Church of Rochester in New York.
-The previous building had been built for many years and designed by Richard Upjohn in 1859, who was a founder of the American Institute of Architects (AIA) .
-However it had to be demolished for the purpose of redevelopment and the congregation of the church felt that it was supposed to be designed by a famous 20th century architect in providing the community a new movement of architecture.
Kahn's brief
http://maps.google.com.au/maps?/complete/search%3Fclient=serp&hl=en&gs_rn=14&gs_ri=serp&cp=306&gs_id=4l&xhr=t&q=The%20First%20Unitarian%20Church%20of%20Rochester%20is%20located%20at%20220%20Winton%20Road%20South%2C%20Rochester%2C%20New%20York%2C%20U.S.%20The%20congregation%20is%20one%20of%20the%20largest%20in%20its%20denomination%2C%20the%20Unitarian%20Universalist%20Association.%20The%20non-creedal%20church%20conducts%20programs%20in%20the%20areas%20of%20spirituality%2C%20social%20concerns%2C%20music%20and%20arts.&noj=1&um=1&biw=1366&bih=667&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=il
Map location (220 Winton Road South, Rochester, New York, U.S)
http://blog.winstonwachter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/matisse-chapel.jpg.jpg
Very personal building
The full effect can’t be realised using only research
Does not rely on facts and figures to be what it is
http://www.henri-matisse.net/img_lightbox/chapel.jpg
Monument to god created by an atheist
A unique mixture of Matisse’s philosophies, creating a piece influenced by 82 years of changing styles
Contrast between the flat painted lines on tiles showing the agony of Christ, and the opposite feature, the glowing stained window, the ‘tree of life’
http://qoldesign.com/images/chapel_1.jpg
http://www.cuisinekarenfrance.com/images/Cote%20dAzur/matisse_chapel_interior.jpg
Serenetiy created by simple walls and floor reflecting the light of the windows
http://www.artsjournal.com/realcleararts/VenceChapel.jpg
Matisse was unaware of Meis van der Rohe’s ‘universal space’ concept
Created a permanent presence through windows and space
Highly organised and simple plan of 3 indivual spaces
http://thetablet.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Matisse-212x300.jpg
http://www.bridgemanart.com/asset/309540/Matisse-Henri-1869-1954/'Tree-of-Life'-Stained-glass-behind-the-Altar-in-t
Harmony throughout the building
Every detail addressed
http://www.artsjournal.com/realcleararts/matisse%2BsisterJ-M.jpg
A gift to Sister Jacques-Marie for her help caring for him
His first and last architecture venture
The chapel was to be built next to a girls’ school
Seen as a personal artistic challenge
http://www.biography.com/imported/images/Biography/Images/Profiles/M/Henri-Matisse-9402564-3-402.jpg
Matisse enlisted a carer after he was diagnosed with bowel cancer
Monique Bourgeois, later known as Sister Jacques-Marie answered his ad
Became extremely good friends despite spiritual differences
Google Street View
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-JX_ErF90_cg/Ti8l2XWu6tI/AAAAAAAAArk/nQfvlsHJkYk/s1600/72dpi_Vence_Matisse_Chapel_SQ_LAN1346.jpg
Raised on the side of the hill
Pedestal effect, drawing the eye
Humble in it’s approach
Alvar Aalto was born in Kuortane, Finland in 1898, the son of a surveyor. He constructed seven churches during his life. ‘Muurame Church (1926) is the first church designed by Aalto. The second church is ‘Vuoksenniska Church’, however the official name is (Church of the three crosses).

This church is located in Imatra, Eastern Finland. Imatra, which is an industrialized city replaced Viipuri city after World War II.
 
Although his early work borrowed from the neoclassic movement, he eventually adapted the symbolism and functionalism of the Modern Movement to generate his plans and forms.
http://www.flickr.com/groups/alvaraalto/pool/page4/?view=lg
The Church of Three Crosses
Imatra, Finland 1955-58
Alvar Aalto
Although Aalto borrowed from the International Style, he utilized texture, color, and structure in creative new ways. He refined the generic examples of modern architecture that existed in most of Europe and recreated them into a new Finnish architecture. Aalto's designs were particularly significant because of their response to site, material and form.
 
http://www.alvaraaltoresearch.fi/files/8413/6033/7023/AAM_RN_Ando.pdf
http://mit81.com/baker/content/alvar-aalto
The Church of Three Crosses
Imatra, Finland 1955-58
Alvar Aalto
http://www.alvaraaltoresearch.fi/files/8413/6033/7023/AAM_RN_Ando.pdf
http://mit81.com/baker/content/alvar-aalto
The Church of Three Crosses
Imatra, Finland 1955-58
Alvar Aalto
http://njitarch382.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/building-analysis-caplutta-n-three-crosses-fuentes-takacs.pdf
Location
The Church of Three Crosses
Imatra, Finland 1955-58
Alvar Aalto
http://www.geolocation.ws/v/P/13062496/the-church-of-the-three-crosses/en
http://www.panoramio.com/photo/62201622
The Church of Three Crosses
Imatra, Finland 1955-58
Alvar Aalto
6
http://natashamulekova.files.wordpress.com/2010/11/technique.pdf
http://mit81.com/baker/content/alvar-aalto
1
“ As Early as 1929 the wedge or FanPlan appeared in Aalto’s Postwar churches.. In Conformity with his fundamental approach to architecture as a synthesis of varied practical and aesthetic needs- fuses a broad range of motifs into a unique, coherent work of artistic perfection.”
-Schildt
http://njitarch382.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/building-analysis-caplutta-n-three-crosses-fuentes-takacs.pdf
Aalto Approach
“ As Early as 1929 the wedge or FanPlan appeared in Aalto’s Postwar churches.. In Conformity with his fundamental approach to architecture as a synthesis of varied practical and aesthetic needs- fuses a broad range of motifs into a unique, coherent work of artistic perfection.”
-Schildt
http://njitarch382.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/building-analysis-caplutta-n-three-crosses-fuentes-takacs.pdf
Aalto Approach
3
In the church of the three crosses Aalto used a three parti scheme. The number three is greatly used in religion because it gives the feeling of harmony and resembles the father, son, and the holy spirit.
BUILDING FORM
FORM GIVES BETTER ACOUSTICS
ENTRANCE DIRECTED TOWARD ALTAR
Form & function
“Church activities in an industrial community naturally focus on social work. The world has many combinations of different kinds -- one can only regret that the satisfaction of social needs has tended to deprive churches of their proper character as public buildings. ....The architect aimed at the full form of a church , while seeking to provide adequately for social activities without compromises.” – Aalto
http://njitarch382.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/building-analysis-caplutta-n-three-crosses-fuentes-takacs.pdf
Layout
http://njitarch382.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/building-analysis-caplutta-n-three-crosses-fuentes-takacs.pdf
Line drawing on Trace edited in Photoshop
Abdul Ghani Alshahrani 900028722
The church of three crosses also opens up towards the altar. Which symbolizes the opening up to the heavens
The use of a double height space with Clerestory Windows or skylight allows for Sun Light enter to diffuse into the space giving a much more ambient effect without disrupting the activity going on in the space
Light
http://archinect.com/blog/article/47316398/lakelands-finland-east
The Interior Fan Shape of the Church of Three Crosses Allows for sound to travel greater distances from the alter to the back of the Church, and treatment of concrete for the interior provides better amplified sound
SOUND
http://archinect.com/blog/article/47316398/lakelands-finland-east
The church of the three crosses shows a clear demonstration of a simple white surface but the texture on the building gives its ornamental feature both buildings would not appear to be a church by its exterior appearance. The three crosses appears to look like a communal building. this would give the buildings it’s appearance in conforming to it’s surrounding
Exterior
http://www.moma.org/collection//browse_results.php?object_id=1009
The interior resemble a clear church. The seating is all directed towards the altar which is located in the largest area of the building. The three crosses may be subdivide to 3 areas or 1 main space. The three crosses hide the connections to the different structural components which gives the appearance of a free standing building.
 
Aalto used a white color throughout the entire building, exterior and interior. The use of white gives the appearance of purity and peace.
Interior
http://archinect.com/blog/article/47316398/lakelands-finland-east
The interior resemble a clear church. The seating is all directed towards the altar which is located in the largest area of the building. The three crosses may be subdivide to 3 areas or 1 main space. The three crosses hide the connections to the different structural components which gives the appearance of a free standing building.
Interior
http://archinect.com/blog/article/47316398/lakelands-finland-east
The interior resemble a clear church. The seating is all directed towards the altar which is located in the largest area of the building. The three crosses may be subdivide to 3 areas or 1 main space. The three crosses hide the connections to the different structural components which gives the appearance of a free standing building.
Interior
http://archinect.com/blog/article/47316398/lakelands-finland-east
The, three crosses is demonstrated only through the exterior
 
Materials
Three Crosses
Brick Rendered White
Concrete Interior
Glass
Copper Roof
Interior
Sketch
http://architecturalmoleskine.blogspot.com.au/2012/06/le-corbusier-chapel-of-notre-dame-du_30.html
http://architecturalmoleskine.blogspot.com.au/2012/06/le-corbusier-chapel-of-notre-dame-du_30.html
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-vYyBCnWeXeQ/TaGU3ZZRjMI/AAAAAAAABXU/5LKyx9JeZFw/s1600/matisse-chapel1.png
http://blog.winstonwachter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/54855_1066508901.jpg
Brilliant contrast
Dramatic and emotive light
http://clochers.free.fr/base/ronchamp.html
http://content.lib.washington.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/buildings&CISOPTR=4539
httpfarm4.static.flickr.com30593055409771_fc36e0ce01.jpg
httpi1.trekearth.comphotos48091heaven-light.jpg
http1.bp.blogspot.com_oN5K_WcO5JMS-gz92EP0kIAAAAAAAAFWsN0F8rE-aIVQs1600Fr+Beneteau+Solemn+High+035.jpg
httpsupload.wikimedia.orgwikipediacommonsdd6Kahn_-_Rochester_Sanctuary.jpeg
6
http://natashamulekova.files.wordpress.com/2010/11/technique.pdf
http://mit81.com/baker/content/alvar-aalto
1
Full transcript