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Feedback and Error Correction in Language Learning
Transcript of Feedback and Error Correction in Language Learning
Positive feedback confirms correctness of a student´s response
: "That is correct, etc."
Negative feedback (or error correction) corrects student´s faulty language behavior
Overt error correction:
Teacher provides the correct answer
Learner ability (recognition that there is an error) and developmental readiness (learner readiness hypothesis) influence whether learners can incorporate feedback and how they respond to error treatment.
Learner's affective reactions (anxiety, fear, embarrassment)
But: most students want feedback of their errors
Role of feedback
Feedback has an informative role
Achieving positive effects with error corrective feedback involves a long-term process
All kinds of over interaction teacher/student in a classroom provides learning opportunities for all students (not only for the one receiving feedback)
Language acquisition is an individual process: it is challenging to know when, how, and what ot correct in the classroom.
Elicitations (directly asking for the correct form / pausing to let student complete the utterance) or
Metalinguistic feedback ("How would you say this in the correct order / in the past tense?) without providing the correct answer interrupt communication, may require the use of L1, are time consuming, and teachers can get side-tracked.
Recasts may not be perceived by students as correctional feedback. Recasts work better if a particular grammar form is targeted, and seems to be effective with phonological errors.
Teacher behavior/strategy effectiveness
Teachers use different strategies.
Most teachers correct selectively, depending on student and focus of exercise.
Most common strategies:
Elicitations seem to have the highest potential.
What is Feedback?
: "I like how you pronounce
[target sound]. Can you try it once more so that it sounds more like it is pronounced in [target language]?
: "Excellent, bravo!"
Teacher´s request to repeat
: Teacher "applauds" student in front of class and reinforces model language use.
S: Yesterday I go shopping.
T: Oh yesterday I also went shopping.
: "Excuse me?"
Oral Feedback Strategies
Correct answer feedback
: "oh, you mean..." "you should say" "the correct verb form is"
: Elicitation techniques
Teacher's request to repeat (with corrective intent)
Error location and metalinguistic feedback (see p. 176, Appendix 5.1)
Selective error correction
Written feedback on grammar errors
Delayed feedback: students may not remember original thought process for using grammar structure.
Teacher has to find an effective form of written feedback and student has to engage and look up correct answer.
But, there are some positive results from correction and praise.
When and how to provide feedback
Be mindful of when and when not to correct
Purpose of the learning task
Error type and pattern
Ease of correction
Engage learners in correction process
Use multiple techniques
Make use of peer corrections
Keep learners' affective reaction in mind
Discuss your error correction strategies with your students
Be mindful of students' inquiries