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Writing a Paper in APA Style (6th Edition)

This is an overview of the components of a research paper in APA style that one might write in my class.
by

Elizabeth Potts

on 20 November 2015

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Transcript of Writing a Paper in APA Style (6th Edition)

Title Page
*Running head is a short title. It should summarize your paper topic in a few words.

*Words "Running head:" only appear on title page.

*Head itself (in ALL CAPS) appears on all pages.
Page Numbers appear on ALL pages. Begin with 1 on title page.
*In APA format everything is double spaced.

*Title is centered, double-spaced, in the top half of the page

*No more than 12 words

*Often uses a : to separate major and sub-themes in title

*Write in Title Case, capitalizing most words (not a, the, an, etc.)
Writing a Paper in APA Style (6th Ed)
Abstract
Note that the running head is present, in all caps, but without the words Running head: before it.
Center and capitalize the word Abstract. Do not put in bold.
*Text starts justified left (no indent)

*Content should be short and sweet, and include highlights of your paper, including findings/results if a study

First Page of Text
Repeat title, centered at top of page, not bolded or in italics

*Indent ALL paragraphs

*If you use Word, use “No Spacing”

*Double space everything, including block quotes

*Do not use the heading "Introduction”

*Write in left justified!

Headings
*Use to organize your paper
*Match to rubric elements, or typical study formats
*Do not use the heading “Introduction”
*Like in an outline, do not use a level unless you have at least two items in the level

Levels of Heading
Use in order, so if have three levels,use 1, 2, and 3
Apple History

Text starts with regular paragraph formation
on the next line and is indented.
Biblical Times
Text starts with regular paragraph formation
on the next line and is indented.

Adam and Eve’s tale.
Start paragraph
immediately afterward.

Sowing seeds.
Start paragraph immediately
afterward.
Apples as Money
Text starts with regular paragraph formation
on the next line and is indented.

*In general, cite your source for everything that is not general knowledge
Ex: “In society today, we use computers a lot”
*Cite anything that is content specific


In Text Citations
One Author
Ex. (Jones, 2007)
Multiple Authors
*List in order on reference page

*List all authors first time (up to but not including six)

Ex: (Smith, Jones, Allan, & Fredericks, 2011)

*Second and subsequent times cited, list first author and then “et al.”

Ex: (Smith et al., 2011)

Multiple Citations
Grouped Together
*List in alphabetical order by first author’s last name

*Separate with semicolons

Ex: (Alton et al., 2000; Jones, 1988; Zinna, 2011)

Citing Something Cited in Something You Read
You want to cite Reed and Dunman (1964), which you read about in Kirk (2010). You cannot find the Reed and Dunman work.

Ex: Pineapples aren’t as awesome as apples (Reed & Dunman as cited in Kirk, 2010).

Only Kirk goes in the reference page
Part of Sentence
vs. Parenthetical
*Spell out “and” in sentence; use “&” in parentheses

Ex: According to Smith and Jones (2010), apples are nutritious.
Ex: Apples are nutritious (Smith & Jones, 2010)

***Citations go WITHIN the sentence (before the period), except for block quotes

Quotations
*Make NO changes

Ex: “She ate they’re [sic] apples” (Fally, 2012)

*Use quotation rules ANY time you copy directly from a source

*Use sparingly

*Introduce quote and immediately end with citation, including page number

Ex: Mays (2007) believes, “apples are more nutritious than cardboard” (p. 304)

Ex: “Apples are more nutritious than cardboard” (Mays, 2007, p. 304).
Block Quotes
*Use for quotations more than 40 words—yes, you have to count them!

*Still double spaced

*Do not use quotation marks (unless quote within a quote)

*Block indent
-Every line is indented and aligned together on the left

Block Quote Example
References
APPLES ARE AWESOME
13
Appears after the last page of text. Note that there is a page number and a head in all caps.
*Center the word “References” (do not bold)

*Double space

*List in alphabetical order by first author’s last name
*Do not change the orders of authors' names from articles; the first author typically does most of the wrok, so give them their credit

Left justify the first line; indent the second and subsequent lines

Anatomy of a Reference
Issue number or no Issue Number?
Only include the issue number if your journal has non-continuous pagination

How do I know?
-If it is a high page number, it’s probably continuous
-If the issue number is greater than 1 and the page numbers are bigger than 90 or so, it is probably continuous
-If the issue number is great than 1 and the page numbers are smaller than 60 or so, it is probably not continuous
-Do a search for other articles in the same journal to see if you find high page numbers

f
Volume Number in Italics
f
Issue number (if needed) in parentheses, not in italics
Tables
*Come right after references

*Do not repeat information from a table directly in the text

*Information in the table should be able to stand alone and enhance text

*Suggest creating in Word or Excel, using the Tables function to get your lines right

*See APA Manual for more details and examples (used rarely, so not in this presentation)

Appendices
*Use sparingly for “extra” materials only

*If one, label “Appendix”
*
If more than one, label alphabetically in capital letters (i.e., “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” etc.)

General Grammar Reminders
Numbers
*Write out numbers less than 10
Ex. Joe walked five miles.

*Use numerals for numbers 10 and greater
Ex. Alice ran 23 miles.

*If mixed use, still follow rules above
Ex. Phil generally runs between eight and 12 miles a day.
Grammar Rules Best
not Overlooked
*Use the penultimate or serial comma

*Semicolon

*General verb agreement

*Pronoun referent agreement

*Verb tense consistency
Ex: Fred, Max, Joe, and Ella went fishing.

Wrong: Fred, Max, Joe and Ella went fishing.
*Used to separate two independent clauses (two things that could be stand-alone sentences).

*Used to separate items in a list if at least one of the items also requires commas.
Ex. I crocheted a lot of blankets last year. They included a pink and white one for Sallie; a green, yellow, and blue one for Sam; an orange, blue, and white one for Donnie; and a purple one for Anne.
Passive Voice
*Not a style choice; bulky and avoidable

*Do not use in APA format!

*Any form of the verb to be followed by a past tense verb

Ex. It was found that...

Most often fixed by having someone do the action (Researchers found) or by eliminating that who verb combo (did anyone have to find it? Can't it just be, and then cite it?)
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