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Chapter 1: Cell Structure and Function

Learn all about Chapter 1 in Life Science
by

Bailey Levine

on 15 January 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 1: Cell Structure and Function

Chapter 1: Cell Structure and Function
Characteristics of Life
Scientist agreed that all living things have common characteristics.
Chemistry of Cells
Review
Section 1: Cells and Life
Cell Size
Fermentation
Some cells release energy from food molecules using fermentation.
Fermentation
is a chemical process that releases energy from food molecules; it begins and ends in the cytoplasm it does not involve the mitochondria or use oxygen. Unfortunately, every type of fermentation produces fewer ATP molecules than Cellular Respiration
Photosynthesis
As you heard previously in the presentation, we get energy from the food we eat. Well plants also get energy from what they absorb, they get it from a process called photosynthesis.
Photosynthesisis
a series of chemical reactions that make food for the plants.
Cell Theory
What is the cell theory?

After the invention of the microscope, scientists began to investigate further what a cell was. Around the 1830s, a German scientist observed that the plant was made up of cells and around the same time another scientist observed the same about animals. Then a German physician stated that all cells come from preexisting cells. These ideas came together to form the
cell

theory
.

All organisms are made of one or more cells.
The cell is the smallest unit of life.
All new cells come from preexisting cells.
Chapter 1, section 3
Cellular Respiration
Reactions in Cytoplasm
Early Microscopes
Cell shape and movement Chapter: 1-2


Reactions in Mitochondria
Lactic acid fermentation
Cells are so small that you need
a microscope to see them. One of the
earliest microscopes was a
light

microscope
. A light microscope uses
light and has one or more lenses that
enlarge and image. Even then, the
light microscope wasn't enough to see
the structures in the cell. The electron
microscope was invented in the 1930s.
It can enlarge images up to 100,000 times
the original size.
Alcohol Fermentation
Cells have a variety of shapes and sizes
Different shapes relate to their functions
Example: A human blood cell easily passes into the smallest blood vessels
Importance of Photosynthesis
Cell membrane
Reactions in Chloroplast
Light and Pigments
Every cell has a flexible covering called the
cell membrane
. It protects the cell from the outside environment. Certain things can't leave or enter the cell membrane.
Cellular respiration is composed of three steps. The first step is called glycolysis,
glycolysis
is when the enzymes break down a carbohydrate by way of phosphate.
Cell Wall
Plants, fungi and some bacteria have a rigid
cell wall
that surrounds its cell membrane. Plants and fungi can grow upward against the force of gravity because the rigid cell wall maintains the cells shape, supports and protects the cell
Cell Appendages
Animals can run run, hop, fly , or swim using appendages such as legs, wings, or fins. Cells can also have appendages. Some appendages are the flagella and cilia. The flagellum is used to produce sperm and each sperm moves by using its flagellum. Cilia are short hair like appendages. Cilia can help single celled organisms move from the motion of cilia or it can help fluids move across the cells body

Cellular

respiration
is a series of chemical reactions that transform the energy from food molecules into usable energy. All cells can release energy to create food molecules but only some cells can make food molecules using light energy. The now usable energy is called ATP,
ATP
stands for Adenosine Triphosphate.
Organization
Cytoplasm and the Cytoskeleton
Cells have to have organization to function properly. Cells have certain structures that help with everything. Respiration, shape, movement and food. Some cells even have a brain that tells them what to do called the nucleus. You will learn more about the nucleus in section 2.
The inside of the cell is the
Cytoplasm
- a thick fluid mainly made of water which fills the cell. Since cells don't have muscles or a skeleton they have
cytoskeleton
. The cytoskeleton is a thick web and plays a role in muscle contraction, cell division, and cell movement,
Responses
Like us cells respond to certain dangers. Some cells, like white blood cells, respond by getting rid of harmful viruses and bacteria
Cell Organelles chapter 1-2
We see things because of light reflecting off of them. An example of this is the appearance of an orange shirt. An orange shirt soaks in every color but orange, which it reflects. Amazingly enough, living things do the same. Plants contain pigments. The pigments both absorb and reflect light. Chloroplast contains chlorophyl which reflects the color green. When the seasons change, the leaves on trees can turn to a different color. This happens because the chlorophyll breaks down in the leaves and isn't replaced.
Cells have many processes going on at the same time, so to keep organized cells have
organelles
. Organelles are structures in the cytoplasm with specific functions. BACTERIA doesn't have organelles
Growth and Development
Nucleus
Growth and development also occur in the cell. Growth in multicellular organisms, like us, happens as the population of cells increases.
Reproduction
The
nucleus
if often called the control center of the cell because it contains the genetic material-chemical code for making all the molecules of the cell. The genetic material in the nucleus is made of chains of DNA that are coiled into structures called
chromosomes
. Cells in the same kind of organisms all have the same number of chromosomes.
Example: Humans all have 23 pairs of chromosomes in each cell.
All cells come from preexisting cells. For this to happen, reproduction must occur. Organisms like humans create offspring similar to them to continue to exist. Cells, however, use a process called mitosis and meiosis which you will learn about in chapter 2 and 3.
Manufacturing
Homeostasis
You read in lesson 1 how important proteins are to molecules in cells. Proteins are built with in ribosomes. Ribosomes can be attached to an organelle called the endoplasmic reticulum or ER. The ER is a highly folded membrane that is connected to the nucleus' membrane. An ER with ribosomes on its surface is called the rough ER is important for making and modifying proteins. ER without ribosomes is called smooth ER. Smooth ER is important for making lipids and helps rid cells of chemicals poisons
We all have sweat or had fevers before. This happens because our body is maintaining our temperature. The process is called homeostasis.
Homeostasis
is a process that tries to keep your internal conditions within certain limits.
Once the light energy is absorbed by the chlorophyll, chemical reactions of photosynthesis begin to occur. These reactions happen in the chloroplast. The light energy is used along with water, and carbon dioxide to make sugar. Also photosynthesis is responsible for producing oxygen and releasing it into the atmosphere.
Energy
You use energy in everyday life. Walking, eating, and even reading a book. Cells are always using energy to perform tasks. They get the energy from the food we eat; but not all cells do. Plant cells use the sun for energy. You will learn more about this in section 3.
Photosynthesis is responsible for supplying earth's atmosphere with oxygen. Also, fruits and vegetables grow because of the sugars produced from photosynthesis. Earths atmosphere would be toxic if photosynthesis didn't take in some of the CO2 and convert it into oxygen.
Have you ever wondered why when you run for a long time, your muscles start to burn? This is because of Lactic Acid Fermentation. Lactic Acid fermentation is when your muscles use more oxygen then the heart and lungs can produce. This feeling of burning is felt because energy from glucose is released and this produces Lactic Acid and carbon dioxide, (CO2). Fun Fact: Did you know cheese and yogurt are made using fungi and bacteria made using Lactic Acid Fermentation.
Water
Two thirds of your body mass is made up of water. 67% of it is inside the cells. The rest of the water acts as an insulation witch helps maintain homeostasis. A unique property of water is that it has a negative end (which is bigger) and a positive end. They are attracted to each other like how the different poles of a magnet are attracted to each other.

Cell contain other molecules too called
macromolecules. Macromolecules are
long chains of smaller molecules.
Proteins, nucleic acid, lipids, and
carbohydrates are all macromolecules.
Proteins
Proteins
are folded chains or groups of folded chains of molecules called amino acids. There are several types of proteins. They each have an amino acid sequence that must be folded properly for it to work correctly. Proteins are important to a cell because they help with lots of functions.
Nucleic Acids
Proteins can't be made with out nucleic acids.
Nucleic

acids
are long chains of molecules called nucleotides. Deoxyribonucleic acid (made up of only four kinds of nucleotides) is a kind of nucleic acid that are found in a cell's DNA. The nucleotides make up the cell's genetic code. The nucleic acid used to make proteins is called ribonucleic acid (RNA).
Lipid
Have you ever gotten oil on your hands but when you washed them the oil stayed on? This is because the oil is a
lipid
or a large molecule that doesn't dissolve in water. Lipids are mostly fats, waxes, phospholipids, and steroids.
Carbohydrates
Sugar (found in fruit and candy), starch (found in bread and pasta), cellulose (a fiber found in vegetables), and chitin ( found in lobster shell) are all carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates
store energy and are made of one sugar molecule, a pair of sugar molecules, or a chain of sugar molecules. Most carbohydrates release energy through chemical reactions.
Energy processing
There are two types of organelles that process the energy to be used by cells. The chemical process that that releases most of the energy occur in the mitochondria. A
mitochondria
transforms the unusable energy in food molecules, into a form of usable energy. The
chloroplast
is in almost all plants and single celled organisms. Chloroplast uses light energy to food from water and carbon dioxide. Some bacteria can make their own food with out chloroplast.
Processing transporting and storing
The
Golgi apparatus
is like the processing factory for the cell. It makes, sorts, stores, and directs the molecules made in the ER.
Vesicles
transports molecules throughout the cytoplasm. They carry substances to the cell membrane where they are released from the cell. The storage organelles of a cell are vacuoles.
Vacuoles
can very in size depending on the organisms.
Cell Types
Not all cells have organelles. If a cell doesn't have a nucleus and other organelles it is called a prokaryotic cell. A cell with a nucleus and organelles is called a eukaryotic cell.
Prokaryotic Cells
Instead of pairs of chromosomes a prokaryotic cell has a loop of DNA. Prokaryotic cells only exist in single celled organisms. If a cell is prokaryotic called a prokaryote. Prokaryotes are also known as bacteria.
Eukaryotic cells
Eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryotic cells as you can see from the pictures. Protists, fungi, plants, and animals are all made of more than one eukaryotic cell so they are called eukaryotes. Some scienist think that eukaryotic cells have evolved from prokaryotic cells evolving to come together.
Did you know, in order to make bread you need yeast? Of course you did, but the real question is, what is yeast? Yeast are single-celled fungi that perform alcohol fermentation. Alcohol fermentation is just like Lactic Acid Fermentation except that it releases ethanol instead of Lactic Acid. Also like Lactic Acid fermentation, Alcohol Fermentation produces CO2 but not as much.

As you learned in Reactions in Cytoplasm there are three steps in Cellular Respiration. The second step occurs in the mitochondria and it uses the smaller molecules produced by glycolysis. These molecules are broken down into Carbon Dioxide molecules.
The third and final step of cellular respiration requires oxygen. This step uses the electrons that are released during the first two steps. In the end, the result is large amounts of ATP being produced and excess water, which in this case is a waste product.
Lets go over what we learned in chapter 1.
Section 1
The first microscope was the
light microscope
.
The
cell theory
.
Characteristics of cells.
Homeostasis
.
Chemistry of cells.
Chapter 1 - 3
Chapter 1-2
In this chapter you learned about
cell wall
cell membrane
cytoplasm
cytoskeleton
Eukaryote
Prokatyote
cell appandeges
organelles
How the cell stores,and transports things
Manufacturing
Nucleus
In this chapter you learned about.
. Cellular Respiration
. Glycolysis
. Fermentation
. Lactic Acid Fermentation
. Alcohol Fermentation
. Photosynthesis
. Pigments
Full transcript