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8 stages of Genocide

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Rileigh Moore

on 7 June 2013

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Transcript of 8 stages of Genocide

Rileigh Moore Armenian Genocide and Holocaust Comparison Holocaust Polarization "The history of man is the history of crimes, and history can repeat. So information is a defense. Through this we can build, we must build a defense against repetition''
-Simon Wiesenthal Classification Holocaust Armenian Genocide Nuremberg Laws Withheld Jewish people from: The right to go to school
Owning a business
Marriage to non-Jews
Bearing a child (forced abortions)
German citizenship is taken
Public pools Religious Classification Distinguish and judge based on religion Muslims -> Turks and Kurds
Christians -> Armenians US
THEM Society treats people based on their religion Germans (Aryans & Nazi's)
Turks (Muslims) Jewish Race
Armenians The loss of WWI resulted in huge repercussions for Germany under the Treaty of Versailles.
The scapegoat for all these problems was conveniently the Jewish people. After the geographical and political decline of the Ottoman Empire, Turkey was determined to pin the fault on others.
The Armenians, who were a different religion, received the blame. Both Nazi Germany and the Ottoman Empire felt they needed to put the blame of an event on another group in order to keep their reputation clear. Both groups that were blamed (Jews, Armenians) were of a different religion than group in power (Catholic Germans, Muslim Turks). Both groups made the victims feel alienated and as if they do not belong During the Holocaust the Jewish people were forbidden to practice their religion of Judaism. The Nazi's enforced this by burning their places of worship, synagogues. "A Complete and Detailed Definition of the Holocaust, accessed May 28, 2013, http://isurvived.org/Holocaust-definition.html. Kathryn Cook, "Diyarbakir," Overview, section goes here, accessed May 28, 2013, http://aftermath.facinghistory.org/content/diyarbakir. Armenian churches were pillaged so that Armenians
could not worship there anymore. Higher taxes were also placed on people who wanted to practice Christianity Symbolization Holocaust Armenian Genocide Armenians were seen in society as second class citizens
Higher taxes and discrimination
Know as "Gavours" which translates to infidel.
The Armenians wanted to wear crosses to symbolize their religion, the Muslims banned the cross The Jewish people were symbolized by:
Being called "Jews"
Yellow Star of David banded on their sleeve
Red "J" in their passport
Had to carry ID cards Children were taught in school about the differences between Jewish people and German people.
The purpose of this was to make sure children weren't befriending the "enemy". "Cowardly, Traitorous, ‘Diseased’ Jews Wear Yellow Magen David." First Light Forum. Accessed May 29, 2013. http://firstlightforum.com/2009/02/cowardly-traitorous-diseased-jews-wear-yellow-magen-david-in-wwii/. The Jew's had the Star of David banded on their clothing and the Nazi's had the swastika banded on their uniforms. This step also goes with the organization of the genocide because this made it easier to round up the Jew's. Armenians were excluded form the everyday rights that they previously had. For example, Armenians could not vote, ride horses, or have houses near Muslim houses. Olson, Ole. "House Foreign Affairs Committee Recognizes Armenian Genocide." News Junkie Post. N.p., 5 Mar. 2010. Web. <http://newsjunkiepost.com/2010/03/05/house-foreign-affairs-committee-recognizes-armenian-genocide/>. Along with the religious classification during both genocides, the Jews and the Armenians both experienced memoricide. Some of their religious buildings along with other places experience destruction by the perpetrating group. Legend A teal arrow or line represents a similarity between the two genocides. White arrows represents a photo connections to the topic. Green brackets represent the main points on how the Holocaust/Armenian Genocide relates to that stage of genodcie. Each circle represents one stage of genocide The Turks and the Nazi's had different strategies for symbolizing their targeting group before the genocide began. The Nazi's were more organized in this stage because this would make it easier for polarization which comes in the stages ahead. The Nazi's focused a lot on this stage where as the Turks did not. A black arrow or line represents differences between the two genocides. Dehumanization Holocaust Armenian Genocide Strategy: make them feel less than human by treating them like they are less than human. Jew's were referred to as "rats"
Slave labour in camps and factories
Publicly humiliating them (forcing them to run around naked.)
Known as a number, not as a person
Cutting girls & women's hair off
The Nazi's transferred the Jews like animals (cattle cars)
Supplied with very little food
Used like rats in scientific experiments
Jew's were forced into living in Ghettos which were dirty and full of diseases.
Warsaw Ghetto was the largest with 500,000 people Referred to as "vermin"
Armenians were turned into slaves and prostitutes
The Turks denied them of food, water, shelter and safety
Armenians were raped by the Turks
Forced naked in front of crowds Name calling went to the extreme and became the new identity for the Jews and the Armenians. The name "rat" or "vermin deemed the victims as in-human or less than human, which made it easier for the perpetrators to be able to justify the torture and crimes that they inflicted on these people. The fear that ran rampant in the bodies of those suffering is shown in this picture. This survivor of the genocide at the time was fearful of her life, and the Turks dehumanized the Armenians to such an extent that they were extremely fearful. This is the Warsaw ghetto in Poland. The daily life
in a ghetto consisted of slave labour, strict Nazi enforcement and barely enough food given to stay alive. Warsaw was the largest ghetto, but there were many in and around Germany, including; Lodz, Krakow, Bialystok, Kovno, Lublin and many others. Daniellian, Jack. "A Century of Silence: Terror and the Armenian Genocide." Ararat Magazine. October 21, 2010. Accessed May 30, 2013. http://araratmagazine.org/2010/10/terror-and-armenian-genocide/. "Holocaust History," Ghettos, During World War II, accessed May 30, 2013, http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005059. "ONLINE ACADEMY: Warsaw Ghetto." Profit Over Life. Accessed May 30, 2013. http://www.profit-over-life.org/teachers_guide/poland/warsaw_ghetto/warsaw_ghetto_execution_wall.html. Child slave labour in Warsaw Ghetto. "Holocaust History," Ghettos, During World War II, accessed May 30, 2013, http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005059. Organization Holocaust Armenian Genocide SS (SchutzStaffel) was Hitlers original security unit which later turned into a military organization
SA (Sturmabteilungen) were put in place to fight opposition of the Socialist Party.
Gestapo was Hitlers "Secret Police" and were known for their cruel, violent acts
Hitler Youth was Hitler's way of influencing the young generation to carry on his beliefs Military/Enforcements The Genocide Every document was printed 3 times and filed in different places.
One copy of everything was stored in Berlin where Hitler was stationed
Concentration Camps are being built ahead of time, as early as 1933
Dachau 1933
Sachsenhausen 1936
Buchenwald 1937
Auschwitz I, II, III (1940-1942)
Railways are built Concentration Camps throughout Europe, 1944 "Holocaust History," Animated Map, Major Nazi camps in Europe, January 1944, accessed May 31, 2013, http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_nm.php?ModuleId=10005144. Concentration Camps in Greater Germany, 1944 "Holocaust History," Animated Map, Major Nazi camps in Greater Germany, 1944, accessed May 31, 2013, http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_nm.php?ModuleId=10005144. Barracks in the Auschwitz-Birkenau
Concentration Camp "Holocaust History," Animated Map, AUSCHWITZ — PHOTOGRAPH, accessed May 31, 2013, http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_nm.php?ModuleId=10005144. Gestapo and police searched people
on the street for weapons "The History Place - Triumph of Hitler," The History Place - Triumph of Hitler: The Gestapo Is Born, section goes here, accessed May 31, 2013, http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/triumph/tr-gestapo.htm.
Built railroads for the deportation of Armenians
The plan was to send the Armenians into the desert where most would die on their own Military/ Enforcements Young Turks come to power, with what seemed to be good intentions for the Armenians
Talat Pasha, Enver Pasha and Cemal Pasha were the driving force to behind the Armenian Genocide
Special Organization (Teshkilati Mahsusa) Was created by the Young Turks.
Comprised of criminals who were in charge of "death squads" who attacked the Armenian provinces Building Talat Pasha Cemal Pasha Enver Pasha During the Armenian genocide, German troops were in the Ottoman Empire and took a lot from the organization of the genocide, such as the railways that were built and used those ideas during the Holocaust Armenian Genocide Propaganda The intellectuals and/or males were taken first
Separated into males and females (adults and kids)
Families were torn apart
Political prisoners were jailed for opposing the ideas of the "Young Turks"
The main idea was to separate all of the Christians from the Muslims Kristallnacht is blamed on the Jews
All victims without a pure German background were ranked on a scale of importance (A "Polish Jew" would be at the bottom)
Jews were driven into Ghettos to be separated from the outside world.
Families were broken up and taken by the Nazis to different places, some never got to see their family again Thousands of Jewish homes and business were destroyed at the hands of Nazi's and Germans. This was blamed on the Jews and they were forced to clean up the the mess. Nazi's arrested Jews and took them to the concentration camps that had been built at this time. Religious separation was common between the two genocides. In many cases, victim families from both genocides were separated and had to die alone The low literacy rate and the absence of technology during the Armenian genocide meant that propaganda wasn't a multi-media fascination like the Holocaust demonstrated
The new invention of the telegraph helped the Turks in sharing propaganda ideas
During the Holocaust, Hitler and the Nazi's displayed propaganda through radio, newspaper, posters, books and rallies
Hitler used propaganda to convince his nation and his allies that the Jewish people don't belong "Page from antisemitic German children’s book, Trust no Fox in the Green Meadow and No Jew on His Oath."USHMM Collection Page from Antisemitic Children's Book. Propaganda, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Accessed June 02, 2013. http://www.ushmm.org/propaganda/exhibit.html. German Jews Are Forced to Turn in Their Radios. Propaganda, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Accessed June 2, 2013. http://www.ushmm.org/propaganda/exhibit.html#/records/data/records/german-jews-surrender-radios.xml. Preparation Extermination Denial Armenian
Genocide Holocaust This is what a Jewish person's passport looked like during the Holocaust. The "J" represented "Jude" which means "Jew" Anti-Jewish Legislation. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Accessed June 03, 2013. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_ph.php?ModuleId=10005681&MediaId=2670. World War I & II Armenian Genocide Holocaust The Nazi's enforced the wear of Jewish symbols, where as the Turks criminalized the wear of Armenian symbols The symbols that the Nazi's associated with Jews, homosexuals and other victim group were forced to be sewn onto the victims.
This was mandatory in concentration camps and in occupied Germany
Political prisoner are taken to camps or jailed for their opposed views "Criminals were marked with green inverted triangles, political prisoners with red, "asocials" (including Roma, nonconformists, vagrants, and other groups) with black or—in the case of Roma in some camps—brown triangles. Homosexuals were identified with pink triangles and Jehovah's Witnesses with purple ones. Non-German prisoners were identified by the first letter of the German name for their home country, which was sewn onto their badge. The two triangles forming the Jewish star badge would both be yellow unless the Jewish prisoner was included in one of the other prisoner categories. A Jewish political prisoner, for example, would be identified with a yellow triangle beneath a red triangle.
The Nazis required Jews to wear the yellow Star of David not only in the camps but throughout most of occupied Europe." Turks took over their homes and businesses
All the Armenian's belongings were left behind and destroyed by the Turks
Political intellectuals who suspected that what the Pasha's were planning was bad, were jailed for speaking out and ultimately killed for trying to intervene In both genocides the group in power made sure that all other political people who would refuse the orders of the dictator were treated almost the same as the targeted group. This could be because the authorities knew what they were doing was wrong and didn't want to take the risk of getting overthrown. Towards the end of the Holocaust Hitler became very nervous and scared that other groups were going to try and over throw him. Hitler began turning his back on those groups and the amount of political prisoners increased. Political prisoners who have arrived at the Oranienburg concentration camp. Holocaust History. Concentration Camps, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Accessed June 03, 2013. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_ph.php?ModuleId=10005263. Holocaust Armenian Genocide "Final Solution"
Gas Chambers
Death Marches
Concentration camps
11 million people dead
Forced to dig their own graves
Mass graves have been discovered Death Marches
Concentration camps
1.5 million people dead
Forced to dig their own graves, which they were shot into
Mass graves have been disovered Technology inventions in both genocides:
Telegraph in the Armenian Genocide
Zyklon B Gas in the Holocaust
Both inventions made the genocide easier to execute. Railways were used for deporting and ultimately killing the victim groups. The perpetrators of the Holocaust used the idea of railways from the Turks to transport Jews from towns to concentration camps. The Turks used the railways to deport the Armenians to the desert or to concentration camps. The famous concentration camp during the Armenian genocide is located in Deir Ez-Zor and the torture that went on there is comparable what happened in Auschwitz during the Holocaust Holocaust History. Concentration Camps, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Accessed June 03, 2013. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_ph.php?ModuleId=10005263. Death Marches
In both genocides victim groups were forced to march for days to weeks. In both cases victims had to march through towns and bystanders turned a blind eye to what was right in front of them. The power of propaganda is shown through their ignorance, SIMILARITY Gas chamber where the guards would send victims to kill them. They were disguised as showers to give the victims false hope. Both victim groups were given false hope at some point throughout the genocides. The Jews were given false hope when they were sent into the gas chambers and the Armenians were given a form of false hope when they got on the trains. They weren't told that they were going to a concentration camp or to the middle of the desert to begin a death march, just that they were being transferred. The Armenians may have believed that they were being transferred to a new country because they weren't wanted anymore in the Ottoman Empire. Holocaust Armenian Genocide Holocaust RECOGNIZE,
STOP GENOCIDE Germany fully recognizes the Holocaust and educates their youth on what happened
People from other countries (political individuals, scholars, teachers) deny the genocide or claim that the specifics are exaggerated
Deniers target the survivors who speak out with evidence and personal stories
They have claimed that the deaths were a result of the war Armenian Genocide The Ottoman Empire which is now known as Turkey still deny the genocide to this day
Turkey has made it illegal to tell the truth about the Armenian Genocide
The government of Turkey claims that civil war was the cause of the deaths and there were similar death counts on both sides Nuremberg Trials Armenian Genocide denial led to the possibility and opportunity for the Holocaust to happen Nuremberg trials were the first of its kinda and set the standards for determining genocide and crimes against humanity in the future
Geneva Convention: protection for the wounded and civilians and the way Prisoners Of War should be treated The Geneva Convention was created in 1929, which was partially set on the basis of the Armenian Genocide and was used during the Nuremberg Trials. Turkey's strong desire to be let into the European Union is being held back until they admit that they massacres of 1915 was in fact genocide. Germany is already a part of the EU and as they are a role model for Turkey, Turkey may feel obligated to admit to their past mistakes. Because of Germany's sense of power over Turkey, they may take it upon themselves to force Turkey to call it a genocide Nuremberg Trials Project -- Introduction. Nuremberg Trials Project, Harvard Law School Library. Accessed June 05, 2013. http://nuremberg.law.harvard.edu/php/docs_swi.php?DI=1. Denial is the ultimate pathway for repetition and it was the ignorance and the blind eye that was turned toward the Armenian Genocide during and after that helped perpetrate the Holocaust Studying the leaders in history are a defense that can be built so that perpetrators of genocide cannot come to power. The early stages of genocide have proven to be different in the different genocides in history. This shows the world examples of what it looks like when a genocide is burbling. This can be learned from and stopped in the future. "Who, after all, speaks today of the annihilation of the Armenians"
-Adolf Hitler Marissa Goldfaden, "An Argument for Outlawing Genocide Denial," RSS, 2009,http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/102/an-argument-for-outlawing-genocide-denial.(accessed May 04, 2013) This quote is proof that Hitler used the forgotten genocide of the Armenians as a motivator to commit the Holocaust and for his country of Germany to go along with the genocide (propaganda). It was his way of normalizing the acts committed and justifying them. If no one remembers or cares about bringing justice to the Armenian Genocide then who will do the same for the Holocaust? "On September 23, 1939, Jews in Germany were forced to turn in their radios to local authorities."
They are no longer allowed to have them in their home. The propaganda radio broadcasts that will be sent out wont be heard by the Jewish people. Hitler's highly propagated rallies, brought in thousands of people and captivated the worlds attention. Organized Nazi experiments on concentration camp prisoners. Included Jews, Russians, Gypsies and other victims. Buckenwald concentration camp, Germany Victims of one of the worst Doctors that operated on victims during the Holocaust, Josef Mengele. Auschwitz Berkenau, Poland 1944 Historically, war has been used as a smokescreen to commit genocide time and time again. "Holocaust History." Photograph. Accessed June 07, 2013. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/gallery_ph.php?ModuleId=10005168. "Holocaust History." Photograph. Accessed June 07, 2013. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/gallery_ph.php?ModuleId=10005168.
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