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Transcript of Reconstruction Express
A severe economic depression began during his second term and a powerful bank declared bankruptcy
This caused the Panic of 1873, a depression that lasted nearly a decade.
In 1874, Democrats gained most of the House of Representatives and the Senate.
Southern Democrats worked hard to regain their state governments. They had help from the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) which terrorized African Americans and Republicans voters.
Southern Democrats called themselves "redeemers" .They claimed to have saved their states from "black Republican" voters.
The South's Trouble With Getting Back Up!
Reconstruction has finally end!
The "New South" is Rising
Rural Economy to come?
The South is claiming that they lost the Civil War because in the industry economy race, they fell short
An Atlanta newspaper editor was the head of a group that urged Southerns to "out-Yankee the Yankees!"
In the 1870s, the railroad system in the South that was destroyed in the war was nearly rebuilt
By the 1880s the Southern industry grew a tremendous amount. Textile mills were everywhere and the American Tobacco Company, developed by James Duke of North Carolina, controlled almost all the tobacco manufacturing in the country.
Ten years later, the South produced nearly 20% of the nation's iron and steel.
The South stayed true to agriculture, not joining on the North's industrial economy.
Landowners held onto their large properties, and continued to try and rake out as much money from King Cotton as possible. However, cotton became less and less profitable.
Farmers in debt used credits instead of paying merchants, but instead became more and more in debt.
New attempts were made to boost the economy, two being sharecropping and tenant farming when estates were divided. Both failed.
February 17, 1877
Vol XCIII, No. 311
THE ELECTION IS COMING
We demand equality
REPUBLICANS TRY TO KEEP POWER
The election of 1876 approached, and Republicans scrambled to keep their power in the White House.
They sent out Rutherford B. Hayes as their candidate, in hopes that he'd appeal to the North and South.
The Democrats elected Samuel Tilden as their candidate.
Neither side received majority, as the votes from Florida, South Carolina and Louisiana hadn't been counted. While Republicans insisted they voted for Hayes, Congress called for a commission to decide they next President.
Hayes is chosen, but the Republicans had to offer many favors to do so. (An example is making any Confederate troops in the south dispatch; but you don't need to write this down.)
The 15th Amendment said you can't denied a person the right to vote because of race. But Southerns found a way around it.
Poll Tax: a fee that was required for you to vote. Many African Americans couldn't pay, so they couldn't vote
Literacy Test: You had to read and explain difficult parts of the U.S or state constitution. Most African Americans weren't educated so they couldn't vote but most whites weren't educated either.
To make sure that white could still vote no matter what, some states passed the grandfather clauses.
Grandfather Clauses: If your father or grandfather voted before Reconstruction, then you can vote.
These laws and the threat of violence cause African American voting to decline sharply
Southern African Americans want their newly won rights
Jim Crow Laws
In the late 1800s, segregation was common in the South.
The Supreme Court even upheld those laws in the Plessy vs Ferguson case. The court said that as long as African Americans had the public facilities as whites had, then it didn't matter if they were separated.
This "separate but equal" mindset often proved to be false, as almost all facilities designated for African Americans were in poor condition.
Violence against African Americans also rose, as lynching- white mobs hanging African Americans in public- and other acts grew in the South.
Exodusters and Buffalo Soldiers
Impact of the Reconstruction
While the Reconstruction did help the devastated South's economy improve, many places and families still remained poor and in debt.
African Americans made some improvements in demolishing racism and claiming their place in society, yet it was still hard to find equality and be treated as a human being.
"The Slave went free; stood a brief moment in the sun; then moved back again into slavery."
-W.E.B. Du Bois
Exodusters: the name enslaved people gave to themselves when they left during Reconstruction
During the 1870s, more than 20,000 African Americans migrated to Kansas. Others escaped slavery by becoming soldiers. They fought in the western Indian Wars from 1867 to 1896.
They were nicknamed "Buffalo Soldiers" by the Apache and Cheyenne.
The Buffalo soldiers also fought in Cuba, the Philippines, Hawaii, and Mexico