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Copy of Rubrics and Exemplars: Evaluation and Calibration
Transcript of Copy of Rubrics and Exemplars: Evaluation and Calibration
purpose, organization, details, voice and mechanics are often what count in a piece of writing.
Variety of Assessment Instruments
6. It is best to use variety of instrument or tools when assessing student learning outcomes.
6.1 Objective Examinations (e.g. multiple choice, true/false, matching type, simple recall)
6.2 Essay examinations allow for students individuality and expression although it may not cover an entire range of knowledge
6.3 Written work (e.g. reports, papers, research projects, reviews, etc.) This type allows learning in the process as well as in the completion of the process. the disadvantage is that plagiarism may occur and written work is difficult to quantify.
6.4 Portfolio assessment. portfolio may either be longitudinal portfolio which contains reports, documents and professional activities complied over a period of time, or best-case/thematic portfolio which is specific to a certain topic or theme.
6.5 Assessment Rubrics
A rubric is an authentic assessment tool which measure student's work. it is a scoring guide that seeks to evaluate a students performance based on a full range of criteria rather than a single numerical score.Authentic assessment tool like rubric allows students to perform real-world tasks which are either replicas or simulations of the kind of situation encountered by adult citizen, consumer or professional. rubrics are used to assess non-subjective test performance like psychomotor test and written reports.
emphasis is on a stated objective
performance is rated in a range
include specific performance characteristics arranged in levels or degrees in which a standard has been met.
Rubrics have three (3) common characteristics
Two Major Types of Rubrics
An analytic rubric resembles a grid with the criteria for a student product listed in the leftmost column and with levels of performance listed across the top row often using numbers and/or descriptive tags. The cells within the center of the rubric may be left blank or may contain descriptions of what the specified criteria look like for each level of performance. When scoring with an analytic rubric each of the criteria is scored individually.
A holistic rubric consists of a single scale with all criteria to be included in the evaluation being considered together (e.g., clarity, organization, and mechanics). With a holistic rubric the rater assigns a single score (usually on a 1 to 4 or 1 to 6 point scale) based on an overall judgment of the student work. The rater matches an entire piece of student work to a single description on the scale.
Assessing Writing: Validity and Reliability
Reliability, is a prerequisite to validity, refers to the overall extent to which a test measures consistently (Bailey, 1998)
Consider the following:
1. Does it measure the course objectives?
2. Does it reflect balance and ideal
distribution of or coverage of the
3. Does it show practicality of the
marking process? Consistent
between markers across a period
Writing Assessment Scales
EFL and ESL assessment literature
generally recognizes two types of writing
scales for students' writing proficiency: HOLISTIC MARKING and
(Hamp-Lyons, 1991; Raimes, 1983;
Assessing Writing: WHAT and WHY?
VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY,
RATER AND THE RATING PROCESS, HOLISTIC AND ANALYTICAL SCALES
Reliability - moderation, double marking and/or training
The Rater and the Rating Process:
Bereiter and Scardemalia (1983) explain that essay writing is
probably the most complex constructive act the most human beings are ever expected
Within the next assessment, McNamara (2000) emphasizes the more general need to take the context
into account in the
Evaluation of writing,
its processes and result in terms
of score, grade or band may be
detrimental in some way or the other to the
test taker. It would also bring out the idio-
syncrasies or the way raters may differ from
each other - overal leniency, patterns of harshness
in relation to group of students or particular tasks,
the difference of what is consistency and
inconsistency and the way the raters interpret
the rating scale they use (p. 98-100)
"Testers caution, however, that
determining "how" to grade is as important
as "what" to grade. To be fair for students,
they should be given plenty of opportunities
to practice a variety of different writing skills
of varying lengths. In other words, test of
writing should be shorter and more frequent,
not just a "snapshot" approach at midterm
and final exams'.
(Coombe & Evans, 2009)
Desired Student Learning Outcomes
Deciding on Lesson Focus
Supporting Student Activities
Formative Assessment Outcomes
Summative Assessment of Outcomes
The advantage in using this type is that teachers are familiar with it, although constructing high quality test questions may be difficult.