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Transcript of Quantum Model
The Quantum Model
What is the Quantum Model?
There are two models of atoms in use in the world today, the Bohr model and the quantum mechanical model. The quantum mechanical model is based off of mathematics. It utilizes the Uncertainty Principle, which says that it is impossible to predict the exact place and momentum of an electron at a certain time. As Heisenberg said, "The more precisely the position is determined, the less precisely the momentum is known in this instant, and vice versa."
The Quantum Mechanical Model was made because the previous Bohr Model. The Bohr Model said that electrons traveled in fixed orbits around the nucleus. His theory only applied to the hydrogen atom, not any of the larger ones, so the Quantum Mechanical Model was made, which applies to ALL atoms. It says that electrons travel freely in the cloud around the nucleus, but are kept in areas of electron probability distribution. You find out the electron probability distribution using math, and it tells you where the electrons are most likely to be (because, remember, we can't tell the EXACT position of an electron because of the Uncertainty Principle!).
Social: Quantum Physics is used in many ways in our society. It is used in the military for machinery, the medical world, and in electronics. Popular uses include x-rays, MRIs, holograms, and semi-conductors.
Economic: There are now quantum computers being made, which use atoms and molecules to perform tasks and help with memory storage. These computers would be able to execute specific calculations must faster than classical computers. When quantum computers become more prevalent are improved to be more practical, there will be competition with the classical computers.
Louis de Broglie proposed electrons are similar to light, because they can act as a particles and waves. He claimed that the behavior of electrons in Bohr's oribits were similar to that of a wave. These were confirmed by experiments which concluded that electrons can be bent, diffracted, or interfere with each other.
- Werner Heisenberg wondered that if electrons are supposed particles and waves, then where could they be in the atom? He found out that electrons can be found by their interaction with protons, because protons have the same energy as electrons, so whenever an attempt is made to find an electron, the photon knocks the electron off the course. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that it is "impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particles
- Erwin Schrodinger used Louis de Broglie's idea (electrons are both waves and particles) to create an equation which subsituted electrons in atoms as waves. He assumed that quantization of electron energies was a natural outcome of his equation.. Along with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, Schrodinger's wave equation became the foundation for the quantum theory which describes the wave properties of electrons, along with other particles mathematically.
Why was it made?
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The Limitations of the Bohr model was that it was too simplistic. It could not predict the erratic behavior of electrons. As stated in one of the previous sections, the Bohr model only applied to hydrogen atoms. The limitation of the Quantum Mechanical Model is that it cannot show the speed of an electron and the placement of an electron at the same time as stated in Heisenberg Uncertainty principle. Basically, you can never know exactly where an electron is.
You've been gone for quite a while now. Well, we're here to let you know that your idea of atoms was not false. After centuries of trying to prove the existence of atoms, we finally have an idea of what they are and how they look. We're going to show you the most recent theory, the Quantum model.
Scientists- Davis, Raymond E. Modern Chemistry. Orlando, FL: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2009. 104+. Print.
Bonsor, Kevin, and Jonathan Strickland. "How Quantum Computers Work." HowStuffWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2013.
and the creation of the model