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Transcript of Washington's Presidency
must be approved by the Senate Washington's Cabinet Federal court system set up... How?? Judiciary Act of 1789 Constitution only mentions the Supreme Court... Set up Supreme Court w/1 chief justice and 5 associate justices
Power to rule on constitutionality of state decisions
Set up 13 district courts and 3 circuit courts of appeals WHY: get a good credit rating WHY: Tie the states closer to the federal government Tariff=tax on FOREIGN goods Excise Tax=tax on manufactured goods - EX. Whisky PROBLEM:
Jefferson argued that the Constitution didn't give congress the power to create a national bank John Jay 1st Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Section 8 of Article I
lists of powers specifically granted to Congress
ends with the statement: Congress shall also have the power "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the forfegoing powers.“ Referred to as the "elastic" clause because it can be "stretched" to include almost any other power that Congress might try to assert. Implied Powers or "Elastic Clause" WHY:
For revenue (money)
For protection of new American industry Differences:
“Loose” construction v. “Strict” construction
Strong central government. vs. states rights
Life terms for senators vs. limited terms
pro-British v. pro-French Did everyone agree with Hamilton's Plan?? Alexander Hamilton v. Thomas Jefferson Differences lead to the first political parties... Approving Hamilton's 5 Point Economic Plan... KEY:
Bargain National Bank for Washington D.C. Hamilton agreed to support: Hamilton agreed to support the move of the nation’s capital to Washington D.C. District of Columbia In return for Jefferson's support for the National Bank... Triva?? - Move the Capitol from where?? Philadelphia, PA New York, NY Washington D.C. First 2 Capitals of the United States Washington's Presidency: Foreign Affairs Foreign Affairs
The French Revolution
Neutrality Proclamation (1793)
The Jay Treaty (1794)
The Pinckney Treaty (1795) Domestic Concerns
The Whisky Rebellion (1796)
Western Lands Washington’s Farewell Address The French Revolution WHAT:
Inspired by American Revolution
The French people overthrew the Louis XVI
a series of unsuccessful democratic governments followed
Britain (& others) fought against France
Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799.
The U.S. did nothing to aid either side. George Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation, 1793 WHY:
Britain and France went to war.
The American public was torn over which nation to support.
George Washington’s response to the division:
U.S. would stay out of the war
Starts a long tradition of isolationism Citizen Genet Jay's Treaty - 1794 WHY:
British encouraged Native American attacks in NW frontier WHAT:
Britain agreed to evacuate NW frontier posts
U.S. and Britain agreed to compensate each other for losses during Revolutionary War Why was it so unpopular?? MISSING: British seizure of ships and impressment of U.S. sailors Jefferson resigned as Secretary of State! French diplomat,1793
He began recruiting men and arming ships in U.S. ports.
President Washington asked France to recall Genêt
Washington later relented and allowed Genêt U.S. citizenship (he would have been arrested by the French) WHY??? Pinckney's Treaty, 1795 Spain was worried about U.S. ties to Britain (Jay's Treaty) WHAT:
Spain recognized U.S. borders at the Mississippi and the 31st parallel (the northern border of Florida, a Spanish possession)
Spain granted Americans the right to deposit goods in New Orleans.
RESULT: very popular! WHY? Battle of Fallen Timbers, 1794 Treaty of Greenville, 1795
The 12 local Indian tribes gave the U.S. the Ohio Valley territory in exchange for a reservation and $10,000.
paved the way for American settlement of the Ohio Valley. WHAT
General “Mad” Anthony Wayne
defeated the Miami Indians Result: The Whisky Rebellion WHEN: 1794
farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey RESULT:
several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders.
In October, 1794, the army (13,000), led by Washington, put down the rebellion. SIGNIFICANCE:
swiftly and effectively
SHOWED POWER of NEW FEDERAL GOVERNMENT! John Adams'
Presidency He warned:
Do not get involved in European affairs!
Against making “permanent” alliances in foreign affairs
Not to form political parties
To avoid sectionalism
about not brushing and flossing… Election of 1796 2nd President (1 Term) PARTY - Federalist 1st President (2 Terms) PARTY - Federalist XYZ Affair Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798 Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, 1799 “Quasi-War” 1798-1800 John Adams Popularity…decline Election of 1800 – Jefferson v. Adams again… First true election
Adams was a Federalist (victorious by 3 electoral votes) 71-68
Jefferson was a Democratic-Republican (became vice president). Thomas Jefferson's
Adams (Following Washington’s advice) sent negotiators to sign treaty w/ France
French diplomat wanted $250,000 bribe to even enter negotiations
Led to war fever against France!
“Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute.”
Stopped trading with the French and used British Navy for protection
Navy was built up and further developed. WHAT:
Unofficial war - U.S. Navy vs. French
Ended with treaty in 1800
French recognized U.S. neutrality
U.S. increased trade with France USS Constellation vs. L'Insurgente Naturalization Act:
Changed from 5 to 14 years time required for citizenship
president could deport “dangerous” aliens and detain enemy aliens during war-time
made it a crime to publish "false, scandalous, and malicious writing" against the government or its officials. RESULT:
Went against those who opposed the Federalists (i.e. French and Democratic-Republicans)
10 Democratic-Republican Newspaper editors jailed
Led to Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions WHAT:
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional (COMPACT THEORY). Compact Theory Under the Constution, the states and federal Government entered a "Compact" If a federal law broke the "compact", states had a right to "nullify" it (make it void) PROBLEM:
Jefferson tied with Aaron Burr SOLUTION:
Election decided in House of Representatives (tied after 35 separate votes)
Alexander Hamilton’s influence helped Jefferson win and started animosity with Burr (duel time!) SIGNIFICANCE:
12th Amendment added to Constitution (separate balloting for president and vice-president)
1st change in political parties in power (from Federalist to Democratic-Republicans) JohnAdams' Presidency: OTHER... TROUBLES:
Popular until Quasi-War and Alien and Sedition Acts
Federalists upset that he didn’t declare war on France (they were pro-British after all)
People felt their rights were infringed upon. WHAT:
John Adams wanted to keep federalist policies in place
All created near the end of his term.
Led to Marbury v. Madison (judicial review) Midnight Appointments or judges... Did you know?:
Forget Xbox 360, we’ve go - kites, marbles, and toy boats
Lawyer - defended 9 British soldiers in Boston Massacre
Nominated Washington to be “Commander in Chief” during Revolution
Helped with Declaration of Independence
Last words “Jefferson still survives” 50th anniversary of Declaration 7/4/1826 (no texting here, Jefferson was already dead!) John Adams Trivia... First Lady – Abigail Adams WHAT:
Business woman - Bond speculator
Got rich from Hamilton’s Economic Program (funding at par – pay debts at full face value)
“remember the ladies” 3rd President (2 Terms) PARTY – Democratic-Republican Wealthy – good schools
Farmers (most people)
School between planting seasons
Free people of color and slaves even less!
In North, churches became centers of education for free people of color
In South, slaves barred from church Education late 1700s WHO:
John Chapman – sold apple seedlings to people settling the frontier
wandering vagabond who loved nature and was peaceful to Native Americans Johnny Appleseed Neutrality=big business (sell to both sides)!
French raids on shipping!
They encouraged pirates…Where’s Captain Jack when you need him? Challenges to Neutrality Under Adams... nickname: Red Fox
Youngest delegate to first Continental Congress, wrote the Declaration of Independence (slave trade talk deleted)
Jefferson an architect? Think Monticello, his home in Virginia!
Oui, Oui, Jefferson was an ambassador to France during the Articles of Confederation! Trivia - Jefferson... First change in party power!
Inaugural address “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists” (unity theme) Election “Revolution” of 1800 Foreign Affairs under Jefferson... Aaron Burr... Embargo Act, 1807 Chesapeake-Leopard Incident, 1807 Challenges to NEUTRALITY under Jefferson WHAT:
Chesapeake-Leopard Incident, 1807 WHAT:
British Ship (Leopard) fired on American ship the Chesapeake (21 casualties)
Public wanted war, but Jefferson remembered Washington’s warning, wanted to stay neutral!
Jefferson passed the Embargo Act of 1807 WHAT:
Jefferson issued embargo NO TRADE WITH EUROPE…period! WHY:
He wanted to force the British and French to respect American neutrality. RESULTS:
DISASTER – farmers suffered, jobs in the shipping industry lost, businesses took huge hits!
Repealed just before Jefferson left office, in 1809 UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCE:
American industry grew (no goods from Europe so we had to make them!) Barbary Wars aka. Tripolitan Wars SITUATION:
U.S. paid tribute to pirates off coast of N. Africa for safe passage of ships in Mediterranean
Jefferson sent Navy to deal with pirates
Stephen Decatur became a hero by destroying a captured American ship (Philadelphia) to keep it out of pirate hands! WHAT:
Make government smaller, less involved
Reduced size of military
Recalled diplomatic (w/foreign countries) missions
Review of government spending (cut debt by ½!) – Albert Gallatin Secretary of Treasury (free trade, repealed excise tax) Jeffersonian Democracy Marbury v. Madison, 1803 Justice Samuel Chase WHO:
A Federalist Supreme Court judge (Revolutionary War hero, signer of the Declaration of Independence) PROBLEM:
Jefferson disagreed with his rulings and had him impeached for publicly criticizing the Jefferson administration RESULT:
Chase was acquitted by the Senate, and the impeachment failed.
Vicious dogs were named after him SIGNIFICANCE:
Only attempt in history to impeach a U.S. Supreme Court Justice.
Set precedent…(it just doesn’t happen) Judiciary Act of 1801
“Midnight Appointments” of John Adams to keep Federalists in power! PROBLEM:
Jefferson refused William Marbury his commission and he sued for it! RESULT:
Chief Justice John Marshall (Federalist) declared pt. of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional
established “Judicial Review”
(Supreme Court can void an act of congress if it violates the Constitution!) Louisiana Purchase, 1804 WHY:
Napoleon needed money
doubled size of U.S. (gained 828,000 square miles); 4 cents an acre
brought up strict v. loose construction argument WHO:
Meriwether Lewis (Jefferson’s personal secretary) and William Clark
30 soldiers, 10 civilians (experts in botany, zoology, sign language, and navigation)
16 year old, Shoshone helped communicate with tribes suspicious of Lewis and Clark
Explored and documented St. Louis to Pacific Ocean Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804 WHO:
Zebulon Pike (think Pike’s Peak, CO - 1805-1807)
He also spied on Spanish while exploring!
Major Stephen Long –
explored middle of Louisiana Purchase region, called it a “Great American Desert” Other Explorers – Louisiana Purchase... Election of 1804 WHAT:
Jefferson big win, he was popular and Federalists weren’t a factor!
12th Amendment (separate voting for pres. and vice pres.) added in 1804 to prevent trouble (think Election 1800)
Aaron Burr dropped and replaced w/George Clinton
Jefferson planned to expand infrastructure to West (roads and canals), but then came the challenges! RADICAL:
Burr joined the Essex Junto – powerful group of New England Federalists
Burr wanted to become gov. of NY and secede NY from the union and join Massachusetts as a new country!
Duel – Alexander Hamilton killed by Aaron Burr (1804) after Hamilton made comments insulting Burr’s character! BURR CONSPIRACY:
Burr planned to join mercenaries and take over the southern Louisiana Territory to eventually secede from the union.
Gov. James Wilkinson informed Jefferson and Burr was arrested!
Burr acquitted of treason by John Marshall
Precedent made it hard for President to use treason as a political tool Jefferson: OTHER Revolution in transportation WHAT:
Steamboat – Robert Fulton
Clermont ,1807 Benjamin Banneker WHAT:
Super scholar, self taught
published an almanac from 1791-1802
asked Jefferson to use influence to help blacks!
called on the colonists' personal experience as "slaves" of Great Britain
Helped survey the new capital (Washington, D.C.) Noah Webster WHAT:
published dictionary that reflected the new “American” English!
12,000 more words than other! Religious freedom for Virginia in 1786
Jefferson was a Deist
believed in a single creator that set universe in motion Jefferson Dynasty:
family of rulers – think Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe – all from Virginia! Sally Hemmings controversy:
Jefferson fathered at least 1 or 2 children w/slave James Madison's
Presidency 4th President (2 Terms) PARTY – Democratic-Republican Washington: OTHER Eli Whitney, slavery died in north grew in south Cotton Gin – 1793 WHAT:
Portrait painting popular in America during late 1700s and early 1800s:
Gilbert Stuart “hook me up with a George Washington”
Charles Wilson Peale
Famous American painters who went to Europe to paint historical scenes:
John Singleton Copley Painting Martha? To Do List... 1. Finish Discussion 2. VoiceThread:
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