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Transcript of Mesopotamia
Canals & Irrigation
Marduk became one of the most important gods by the third millennium BCE. He was the head of the Mesopotamian pantheon in the first millennium. The pantheon being a temple dedicated to all gods. This made him the patron god of the city of Babylon.
The Temple was known to be the foundation of the heavens and the earth, and because of this the temple was named Bel, otherwise known as “Lord” in Akkadian.
Mesopotamia was located in the area that is now
Eastern Syria,South Eastern Turkey, and most of Iraq.
The Civilization was developed and established because of the the rivers, Euphrates, and Tigris
What was the Mural?
Marduk's symbol was a animal. The symbol resembling a “snake-dragon” . The Snake Dragon of Marduk decorated the Ishtar Gate which began the procession to the great temple of Marduk.
The dragon was created through the use of molded glazed bricks, including the body of a dragon, head of a snake, hind feet claws of a large bird, front paws of a lion, and the tail of a scorpion.
- Earliest form of writing known, was based on pictogram's.
- Was used to communicate basic information, about crops or taxes.
- Over time writing became more important, morphed from pictures to a type of script.
-It existed between approximately 7000 B.C. and 539 B.C
5000 B.C- begin to farm, and use irrigation
3300 B.C- Writing has been created (pictures for words)
3200 B.C -The Wheel was used for transportation use
744 B.C - iron weapons, and chariots are created
The purpose of the Marduk mural was to make the God "Marduk" better known to the civilization. This Patron god was known best ,and worshiped for water, vegetation, judgment, and magic.
(The mural was placed on a brick wall, on the path to the temple. )
- Cuneiform means wedged shape
- Comes from the Latin words "cuneus" (wedge) and "forma" (shape)
- Written on a piece of clay with a blunt piece of reed
- System of writing for more then 3 millennia
- 34th century BC to 2nd century AD
What was the importance?
The Mesopotamia's beliefs were polytheistic (worshiping more then one god). They also believed that the world was a flat disc, and that it was covered by water everywhere.
As the civilization grew, so did politics, and as political importance expanded so did the importance of religion.
One of the best-known literary texts from ancient Mesopotamia describes Marduk's dramatic rise to power: Marduk battles the goddess Tiamat. Marduk rises to power after becoming victorious killing Tiamate. He then creates the world from her body. The Mesopotamian society based their beliefs on this story.
- Between half a million and 2 million tablets are estimated to have been excavated
- About 100, 000 have been published
The the rise and fall of Mesopotamia:
Mesopotamia rose in 7000 BC. because of the fertile soils of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. The Civilizations with in Mesopotamia became very successful. The influences that Mesopotamia had on us today are many. Unfortunately the Mesopotamia fell under the Median Empire rule in the 6th and 7th century. Mesopotamia then fell to Alexander the Great in 330 BC.
Brick making was a major Mesopotamian industry, when rock, and wood were in short supply. Bricks were primarily made out of clay, straw, sand, water, and mud.
The oldest wheel was discovered in Mesopotamia, used by chariots in 3500 B.C
Mesopotamian s were the first to use the pottery wheel.
Using their advance skills in math, they were able to follow the movements of the stars, planets, and the moon.
The Mesopotamian s believed in many different gods, including one primary god for each city
in 5000 BC the sumer formed the first city, and towns. They used irrigation to farm large areas of land
Farming in Mesopotamia was very important. Although Mesopotamian were considered great farmers, that is only because of the situations that had been given to them.
Mesopotamia was a semi-arid climate. Mesopotamia only got about 10 inches of rain a year.
Yet, the peoples still worried about flooding. During the summer Mesopotamia flooded...a lot. This was due to the sun melting snow on the mountains in the area. The snow would then lead to the Tigris & Euprates Rivers. Overflowing and destroying the settlements.
- All knowledge of cuneiform was lost until 1835
- Henry Rawlinson, English army officer, found some inscriptions on a cliff in Persia
- after translating one of the scripts, he began to translate the rest
Mesopotamian Social Classes
The Lower Class
For these people stealing was a problem
Even though they didn't get to enjoy the life that the upperclassmen had they were still comfortable
They wore jewelery but not like the upperclassman's
They can still move up the social hierarchy by becoming a scribe a priest/priestess
The slaves are put at the very bottom of the social hierarchy. Now with these people it can be impossible to move up.
The Upper Class
The priests were considered the highest class of all.
Made sure everyone behaved properly worshiping the Gods
They were the doctors at the time if you were sick you called the priests
This class is one of the higher classes, right below the priests. these people had high paying jobs which resulted with them having lots of money.
Men wore Skirts , had long hair and a long curly beard
Women wore dresses, off to one side
Both wore jewelery especially rings
The priest Normally Shaves his head and wore a black cloak
If a woman was in the upper class one would find her in a Carnelian Necklace- with many other stones and amulets
What is it?
This particular piece of jewelery is called the Carnelian necklace. Made with the carnelian bead. There are also many other popular beads chosen and worn if you were in the upper class
This particular artifact the carnelian necklace relates to the art and the social aspect characteristics
If you were wealthy , you would be considered one of the upperclassmen. And in order to be distinguished you would have to have one of these items/beads attached to your jewelry to establish that you are one of the important people
This also relates to the art characteristic of the time because the people would be making this, and this is one of the art forms that flourished in ancient Mesopotamia
Other popular styles , stones/beads used in upperclassmen jewelery
The jewelery designs included
Another gemstone Lapiz Lazuli in ancient Mesopotamia, this gemstone was more valued than gold
They were controlled by higher ranked citizens
Had no rights
did not make money for all their work
they got a small shelter when they were not working
Had to live with many other people in their shelter who had the same boss
What`s its purpose/function?
It's purpose is fashion, and some Mesopotamian believed that the carnelian bead had healing properties in the bead itself.
This particular item is important because it enables the people to sell items to earn a living. Other than working as scribes or becoming a priest.
It also show's how creative the ancient Mesopotamian civilization is
Why its important to Ancient Mesopotamia
To prevent the flooding Mesopotamian's created Dams and Canals to lead the flood waters away from the settlements. Unbeknownst to them, this canal system made the soil more fertile. The Mesopotamian's were able to plant more, and gain more products because of this system.
This artifact relates to the Public works section of Characteristics of a Civilization. The government of Mesopotamia built the dams and canals to protect its people.
Originally the purpose was to protect the settlements and
the people,but as the settlements progressed the canals had a dual purpose:To protect and to feed the citizens of Mesopotamia
Irrigation to Mesopotamia was really important. It gave them food and kept them alive. Although the canals were hard to maintain, laws in Mesopotamia required EVERYONE to help out during flood times, or to lend your neighbor your shovel or garden hoe whenever they needed it.