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The Battle of El Alamein
Transcript of The Battle of El Alamein
Commanded the 8th Army in the Western desert of North Africa
Nicknamed "Monty" by the British troops Very well respected and notorious German general, even among Allied troops
Commanded the Afrika Korps (Italy and Germany)
Nicknamed the "Desert Fox" because of his skill as a commander of desert warfare Where was the Battle Fought? El Alamein, Egypt Mine fields were set up by both sides all throughout the battle site Why Was the Battle Fought? Early in World War II Italy and Britain fought for control in North Africa
this would allow control of the Suez Canal, a major shipping route that connected the Mediterranean with Middle Eastern oil fields 1940, Italy almost lost control of North Africa
Hitler sent German forces to support the Italians, which formed the Afrika Korps Suez Canal Middle East How Were the Odds in the Battle? Allies Afrika Korps over 200,000 men
over 1,000 tanks
armed with better artillery guns
plenty of supplies because of control of Suez Canal 110,000 men
500 tanks (many of which were poor Italian ones)
Short on fuel and other supplies What Happened in the Battle? A Distinct Advantage Using information from Rommel's battle plans that had been stolen and deciphered, Montgomery was able to cut off Axis supply lines
Britain was well equipped and expecting an attack from the Afrika Korps Many German tanks were blown up by land mines laid down by the Allies when Rommel attacked
The Korps retreated quickly and laid down anti-tank mines between them and the Allied camp What Happened in the Battle? Diversions Do 'Em In Montgomery first tried creating a diversion in the South, then attacking with stealth from the North but his operation didn't go as planned
Despite the mishap of the Allies, the Afrika Korps was still struggling
Rommel was later forced to move North near the Mediterranean, where Allied Australian units were attacking (and acting as a diversion for Montgomery)
The British attacked from the South and Rommel was taken by surprise
The number of Allied tanks vs. the number of German tanks overwhelmed the Afrika Korps and it helped lead to their defeat What Was the Significance? Axis Power Lessens As a result of the smashing British victory in the First Battle of El Alamein, Axis power in North Africa was severely weakened
Casualties numbered at 25,000 for the Italians and Germans, and 13,000 for the Allied troops in the battle
The Afrika Korps retreated soon after it's defeat in November, and again after its defeat in the Second Battle of El Alamein
Germany surrendered in North Africa by May 1943 There was another short battle early in 1943, but the British won with another sweeping victory Sources Used Information was gathered from:
www.historylearningsite.co.uk/battle_of_el_alamein.htm World History: Human Legacy textbook