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Framingham High School English 2 Grammar--VERBALS

Covering Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitives
by

Peter Eliot

on 15 April 2015

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Transcript of Framingham High School English 2 Grammar--VERBALS

Verbals


Participles
There are two types: Past & Present
Infinitives
To wait seemed foolish when decisive action was required.
Types
Gerunds
Participle v. Gerund
Because present participles also end in -ing, we need to be able to tell difference between the two.
Practice
The water drained slowly in the pipe clogged with dog hair.
Grammar’s Best Friends, even though they are totally, like, always changing their minds. Are they a verb or aren’t they?
There are three types of verbals:
Gerunds
— all gerunds end in –ing (swimming, skydiving)
Gerunds act as nouns
Infinitives
— the non-conjugated form of the verb (i.e. to swim, to run)
Infinitives can act as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs
Participles
— verbs either in the past or present tense
Participles act as adjectives


All gerunds end in –ing, without exception, and act as NOUNS.


Nouns can function as one of five things in a sentence:



The Gerund

Subject
Direct Object
Indirect Object
Predicate Nominative
Object of the
Preposition
A Gerund Phrase is a Gerund (-ing) along with all of its modifiers and/or objects
The Gerund Phrase will still act as a noun, just a long one.
Gerund Phrases
Practice

Mr. Eliot gives stapling his undivided attention.
Mr. Eliot often writes in his diary about his devotion to stapling.
Maybe we should call someone; I think Mr. Eliot is obsessed with stapling.
Mr. Eliot enjoys stapling late at night.
Stapling perfectly in the corner is often considered by scholars to be an indicator of brilliance.
Mr. Eliot’s first love is stapling.
Remember: Gerunds always act as...
And the five ways they can function are...
Eating can be messy if you don’t use your hands.
vs.
Eating ice cream on a warm, windy day can
be messy if you don’t use your hands.
English 2 Grammar
Past tense of verb
Present tense of verb
Participles act as ADJECTIVES, which, as always, MODIFY NOUNS.
(usually end in -ed)
(always end in -ing)
Parti
cipial
phrases begin with the participle and contain all its modifiers; it still acts as an adjective, just a long one.
The trotting horse ran down the beach.
The baby back ribs were glazed.
The horse trotting up to the fence hopes you have a carrot or apple.
Glazed with barbeque sauce, the ribs were delicious.
The trotting horse ran down the beach.
The baby back ribs were glazed.
Walking on the beach is painful if jellyfish have washed ashore.
Walking on the beach, we carefully avoided the jellyfish by spraying them with pepper spray; now they are a delicious snack for our walk.
Mr. Eliot watched the students stapling their papers perfectly in the corner.
Mr. Eliot's continued discussion of stapling makes me seriously doubt his ability to teach us.
Mr. Eliot stayed after school until 9:30pm trying to fix his stapler; he used a screwdriver, blowtorch, and his tears.
Seriously though, Mr. Eliot. This is starting to get weird.
Marie risked petting the german shepherd wagging its long tail.
When a participle phrase concludes a main clause and is describing the
word right in front of it, you need no punctuation to connect the two sentence parts.
Stapled at a 45-degree angle, the paper was sure to be a success.
When a participial phrase introduces a main clause, separate the two sentence components with a comma.
Cooper enjoyed dinner at Audrey's house, agreeing to a large slice of cherry pie even though he was full to the point of bursting.
When a participial phrase concludes a main clause and modifies a word farther up in the sentence, you will need a comma.
With help from ChompChomp.com
A verbal that consists of "to" + verb
That can act as a Noun, Adj, or Adv
Everyone wanted to go.
His ambition is to fly
He lacked the strength to resist.
We must study to learn
The tricky part can be trying to tell the difference between an infinitive and a prepositional phrase.
Infinitives
: to fly, to draw, to become, to enter, to stand, to catch, to belong
Prepositional Phrases
: to him, to the committee, to my house, to the mountains, to us, to this address
The infinitive phrase consists of the infinitive and all its modifiers.
We intended to leave early.
I have a paper to write before class
Richard braved the icy rain to throw the smelly squid eyeball stew into the apartment dumpster.
How? When? Where? and Why?
I really enjoy going to the mall with my friends.
Wherever Melissa goes, she always brings a book to read in case conversation lags or she has a long wait.
Full transcript