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Bioterrorism

by Neha Sharma & Jaspreet Kaur [LGS: Global Issues II]
by

Neha Sharma

on 7 May 2014

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Transcript of Bioterrorism

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AS DEFINED BY THE UNITED NATIONS...
"An anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, whereby - in contrast to assassination - the direct targets of violence are not the main targets."
WHAT IS TERRORISM?
Person/people armed and on a mission
Usage of bombs, firearms, weaponry.
STRATEGY?
Create fear.
MOTIVE?
To fulfill a political, religious,
ideological objective.
BIOTERRORISM
By Neha Sharma & Jaspreet Kaur
What are some concerns?
Terrorism
BIO
TERRORISM
Simulation: How Are Diseases Spread?
References
"Bioterrorism." CDC Emergency Preparedness & Response Site. CDC, n.d. Web. 7 May 2013. <http://emergency.cdc.gov/bioterrorism/>.
The Bioterrorism Act (2013). In CBP. Retrieved May 7, 2013, from <http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/trade/trade_programs/is_initiatives/bioterrorism/bioterrorism_act.xml>.
Connor, Scott “The Importance of aNational Biosurveillance Strategy.” NACCHO.Oct. 2010.Web. 27 Jul. 2012 <http://www.naccho.org/topics/emergency/AHPIP/loader.cfm?csModule=security/getfile&pageid=159557>
Has Bioterrorism Preparedness Improved Public Health? (2003). In Issue Brief . Retrieved May 9, 2013, from http://www.hschange.com/CONTENT/588/#
Hylton, Wil S. "How Ready Are We for Bioterrorism?" The New York Times. 26 Oct. 2010. Web.
Lewis, Susan K. "NOVA | History of Biowarfare." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. 1 Apr. 2009. Web.
Redlener, Irwin M.D. Americans at Risk.New York : RandomHouse, Inc., 2006
CAREFULLY OPEN ENVELOPE, TAKE LETTER OUT, PUT ASIDE
POUR SUBSTANCE INTO WATER- DISSOLVE
WHAT IS IT?
Equally destructive as bomb or missile.
Underestimated threat
Difficult to detect
delayed effects
AS DEFINED BY THE CENTER FOR DISEASE CONTROL & PREVENTION...
The "deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other germs (agents) used to cause illness of death in people, animals or plants".
AGENTS OF BIOTERRORISM
CATEGORY A: high priority pathogens, national security risk, person to person contact
CATEGORY B: moderately easy to disperse, moderate morbidity/mortality rates, require enhanced surveillance
CATEGORY C: 3rd highest priority, difficult to engineer for mass dispersion, if created = high mortality/morbidity rates
AGENTS
Nipah virus
anthrax
botulism
plague
smallpox
tularemia
hantavirus
brucellosis
salmonella
glanders
Q-fever
typhus
encephalitis
HOW ARE ACTS OF BIOTERRORISM CARRIED OUT?
pathogens easily transmitte
d
via
aerosol
can even linger in air for long time
EASY & CHEAP
DISPERSAL
most come from natural resources
can be found at minimal expense
ACESSIBLE
The internet has made creating and and gaining knowledge about weaponry easier then ever
WHAT DOES ONE NEED TO KNOW TO CARRY OUT AN ATTACK?
BOSTON BOMBINGS
some biomedical knowledge
& have criminal intent
IS IT A GLOBAL ISSUE?
ease of transfer
globalization, travel, trade
is a constant
noone is immune
NO NEW PHENOMENA
Around for centuries:
Mesopotamia mycotoxin well poisoning
14th Century plague corpse catapult
French&Indian War smallpox blankets
NOTHING NEW.. SO WHY NOW?
NYT: Randell Larsen at the White House
VP DC: "But what are we looking for?
What does a bio-weapon look like?
RL: "It looks like this and btw, I just
smuggled this into your office. Security
was looking for the wrong things & still are
SEND SAMPLE FOR "LABORATORY TEST"
EXCHANGE YOUR LIQUID WITH 2 PEOPLE
WHAT'S BEING DONE?
Main Approaches
CDC & Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)
Funding
Simulations
Detection
Implemenation of laws
Strengthening the ability of public health
Research & Trials
Healthcare Facilities
American health care system still needs more improvement
Ex. Avian Influenza occurs mainly in birds and has not been found to be contagious from person to person contact, but if possible the virus were able to mesh with another highly contagious virus or if it adapts, as viruses often do, would create a catastrophe
Also, waiting lines in medical offices are too long, and in addition to the millions who have no health insurance, millions more live in areas where there are physician shortages and poor access to care in general
Hospitals need to be stablized, have more resources, and be financially well to provide care for a large-scale of people
Whats being done?
In its review, the Congressionally chartered Commission on the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism gave the U.S. Government a grade of "F" for failing to enhance the Nation’s capabilities for rapid response that would prevent biological attacks from inflicting mass casualties.
More Concerns
...
What Are
Government
Systems/
Organizations
Lacking?
Inability to providing information on bio-terrorism and the diseases
Reaching out to the public
Direct responsibility in taking care of the citizens
Positive reinforcement!
Our Proposal
Concentrate on Public Health
&
Awareness of these bio-agents!
Awareness
of these
bio-agents
Not only health professionals should recognize these diseases but the whole community
Knowledge of the types of disease outbreaks enables for immediate action and treatment
Rather than the public being scared and traumatized post-outbreak
Laboratories should strengthen their system to identify the diseases immediately
Global cooperation in surveillance of new diseases
Increase the amount of research on bio-agents
There is a need to train health professionals to take action in large scale emergencies
A need to target diseases ASAP within the first phase or first few symptoms
False alarm & failing to identify a true attack could be disastrous
Not all vaccines are safe or duration of vaccine is unknown
Development of new vaccines and antibiotics are essential

Producing vaccines that are not disease-specific

Developing safe vaccines

Producing vaccines quickly and readily available

Having vaccines and medications that have immediate effects

Improving health facilities to accompany a lot more people during an outbreak
Public Health
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