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age of exploration
Transcript of age of exploration
By: Yen Pham & Savannah Reed
Describe the motivations (3-5 reasons) behind why these countries wanted to explore? Were they the same for each country? Rank the goals in order of which you think where most important, and explain your reasoning?
Christoper Columbus explored because he was in hopes of finding a trade route to India for spices. Sailing from Palos, Spain Columbus began his journey to India. later on in his search, Christopher Columbus had thought he had landed on the southern Asia,or India. Out of ignorance Christopher Columbus had landed on an island called Guanahani, or San Salvador,in the Indies.
Christopher Columbus thought he was in Asia. then called the a red Indies and named the people Indians. Columbus's goal was to find a western sea route china and India. As well explore the islands of Asia for gold and spice.
Prince Henry the Navigator
What countries were the most influential? Discuss 3-5 major countries during the Age of Exploration (1400-1650)?
Some motivations of why Spain, France, Portugal, England, and Netherlands wanted to explore was because of various reasons such as land, trading partners or trade routes, goods, overseas wealth, and adventure. The motivations between the five countries were quite the same, but they had different reasons behind there motivations.
Prince Henry the navigator was the third son to the King John I. He was also a solider, a patron of explorers, and of course a royal prince. at the age of 21, Henry and his father, along with his older brothers, went to the Moslem port of Ceutha north of morocco and invaded the port. After the invasion Prince Henry got the motivation to explore Africa since most of Europe was unaware of what lied in Africa.
Prince Henry the navigator was credited for starting the age of exploration because he sent people to different parts of Africa to explore the land. during this time the people of Europe didn't know a lot about Africa like we do now. Another reason he was credited was because he started the first school for ocean navigation and astronomical observatory.
Why was Prince Henry the navigator credited with the starting of the age of exploration? What was his role and how did he make such a large impact?
What were his goals?
Prince Henry the navigators goal was to see Portuguese sailors sail the west coast of Africa and find the limitation of the muslim land.
One example that proves that Prince Henry's goals were accomplished was when prince Henry sent one his students to go explore, Gil Eannes.
The Age of Exploration was a period of time when the European began to exploring the world. The main purposes for the explorers expeditions was to searched for trade routes, overseas wealth, and adventure.
* The next 5 slides will show what they did during the age of exploration.*
4. Bartolomeu Dias
Pedro Alvarez Cabral
Afonso de Albuquerque
The first country to began the Age of Exploration. The monarchy of Spain hire an Italian explorer, Christopher Columbus, to find trade route to India. The voyage was failed to reach Asia, but he found an island then named it as Bahamas, in 1492. For further exploration, he established the settlement of Santo Domingo in 1493. In 1493, the Pope declared the New World is Spain property. But Portugal, another great sea power, disagree and they both reach a compromise with a Treaty of Tordesillas. After the Treaty, Spain eslished itself as the European power in the New World, then they send many explorers into South America. The expeditions they is to find gold, slaves lucrative trade routes, fame, and they wanted to create an enormous empire too. Some of the outcomes of some expedition is made Spain have some landmarks such as Aztecs in Mexico by 1522 (Spaniard Hernando Cortez) and Incas in Peru in 1536 (Francisco Pizarro) and Florida in North America in 1513 (Ponce de Leon). Also, Hernando de Soto led a Spanish exploration of the southeastern U.S. in 1539, discovering the Mississippi River. Conquistadors plundered indigenous tribes for treasure and slave labor. They also populated with Native American to extend their territories. Under Conquistadors rule - many Natives died from disease, malnutrition, and fatigue. Soon, the lock of slave labor replace with African slaves that brought in by Portuguese slave traders. In 1565, Spain successfully establish the first European settlement in North American - in St. Augustine, Florida. About 17th century, Spanish settlers come into Southwest, establishing the colony of Santa Fe in 1610. To maintain North America, the Spanish attacked French and British and destroy their forts. Spain then notice that Florida as particularly important in the effort to diminish French and British expansion Southward.
The Dutch East India Company became interested in North America settlement in 1609 when Henry Hudson sailed up a river that is now carry his name. In 1625, Dutch brought Manhattan island the natives and established the settlement of New Amsterdam at the mouth of Hudson River. While the colony work on fur trading, Dutch expand their landholding beyond their domain around the Hudson River Conflict between England and Netherlands spread to the New World in 1664 during which the English took over New Amsterdam and rename it as New York. After 1664, Dutch influence waned.
The France also played an strong role in the New World, their goal is to find a Northwest Passage in a hope for water route which for ships to have access to Asia. In 3 voyages between 1534 and 1542, French explorer Jacques Cartier traveled the St. Lawrence River as far as Montreal. But his expedition for Northwest Passage was failed, but he still help France's early dominance of North America's major waterways. In 1562, France settlers attempt to settle in what is now South Carolina but it was not a long duration. In 1564, Spanish attacked and destroyed a French settlement near Jacksonville, Florida. Despite of their failure, the France continue to play an important role in North America. The French engaged in profitable fur trade, setting outposts throughout Newfoundland, Maine, and regions farther west. Samuel de Champlain founded the first permanent French settlements in 1608 at Quebec, and they established a fur trade with region's Native American tribes. End of 17th century, French controlled St. Lawrence River, Mississippi River, Great Lakes and most of the land in the heart of the continent, North America. With European colonial powers, the French enjoyed the best relationship with the Native Americans.
England is a country that start late in exploring and colonization the New World. True, King Henry VII did send explorer John Cabot across the Atlantic in 1497, Cabot claimed Nova Scotia, Grand Banks, and Newfoundland for England. For much 16th century, England does not involve in the New World with concern of domestic issue. But English start t earn back interest about the middle of 16th century. Some of the religious groups such as Puritans, who disagreed with the practice of Church England, saw the New World as a place were they could practice their religion without persecution. The King of England was attracted by the wealth of Spain after exploring and the riches Captain Francis Drake and other plundered from Spanish ships off of Central America in the late 1750s had make English eager to explored the New World. The Catholic Spain felt threatened by British sea power and the arrival of English Protestants. Then, the two greatest sea power have become rivals of one another in controlling the New World. But England's first effort to establish a settlement in the New World ended badly. In 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh gained a royal charter from a king to found the settlement of Roanoke which located on an island off the coast of North Carolina. But then the Native American tribes raid the island and the disease devastated the settlement, and the island eventually abandoned. With the mind of eliminate their New World rivals, the great Spanish Armada try to attack the English off their coast in 1588. Luckily, the clever fleet of outgunned English ships decimated the Armada. With this victory, English began to ascend as a premier naval power, which help them with the colonial efforts, and Spain began to decline. The conflict between Spain and British last until the end of 16th century. By 1600 the English crown and Parliament were happy to spend money on their colonization by open joint-stock companies to gather funding for colonization through the sale of public stock. Now, the religious groups saw the rise of the English navy is an opportunity for them to move to the New World and escape persecution. Also, the companies that were formed will responsible for most of English colonization throughout the 17th century.
What are the goals for exploration, where they explored, where they sailed from, why they are significant, any major discoveries, and outcomes of their explorations?
Africa: Bartolomeu Dias
North America: Francisco Coranado
South America: Pedro Alvarez Cabral
Asia: Afonso de Albuquerque
Others: Ferdinand Magellan
Francisco Vasquez de Coranado
Pedro Alvares Cabral
Afonso de Albuquerque
Why did Columbus explored and where did he sail from? Major problems/roadblocks?
What were Christopher Columbus' goals?
Columbus's goal was to find a western sea route to china and India. Also to explore the islands of Asia for gold and spices.
How did he impact the native population already in the Americas? Is this contrary to how we view him as a culture? Which story do you side with and why?
Christopher Columbus impacted the native population in a negative way. Columbus made a negative impact on the native population by forcing the natives in to slavery. No is not contrary because we view him as this man who supposedly found the Americas before anyone when really he accidentally stumbled upon it.
Goals, where did he explore, who did he encounter?
Why were some Spanish explorers called conquistadors?
How were they viewed by the people they found? How did the Natives views lead to their eventual downfall?
Background inf0: Christopher Columbus is a famous explorer who is Known for discovering the "New World" who was supported by the Spanish crown
1. The most important goal is Spain because there goal was to control the money from the trades that were going to be made from the new land.
Portuguese Adventurer & Explorer
Born: 1450 Died: 1500
Spanish Conquistador & Explorer
Born: 1510 Died: 1554
3. The third most important goal is England and because their goal was to have more land than anybody else.
4. The fourth most important goal is Netherlands because their goal was to have land.
2. The second most important goal is Portugal because their goal was to control all sea trade.
Some spanish explorers were called conquistadors because conquistadors is just a big word for "conqueror".
Hernan Cortez explored the land of Mexico and encountered the Aztec empire. Cortez's goal was to find gold in the Aztec empire.
Coranado goal is to searching for the legendary 7 Golden Cities of Cibola - which they never found. In 1540, he set out with 300 Spanish soldiers and roughly 1000 Indians to lead a mission to further explore these claims. Coranado had failed to found the Golden Cities but he had took over the Zuni village when he clash with Zunis Indian. Also, he discover many other famous landmarks such as Grand Canyon, Tiguex (community made of several Pueblo Indians villages), Pecos River, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. But the return to Spain in 1542 is a bad idea because all his counts are cleared and he was removed from duties which related to his failed of investigation of Golden Cities. Last of all, he spent his life as city council in Mexico City. He died on September 22, 1554. But he was known as 1st person to visited the American West. Some of the cities and towns include Coranado in their name to note his accomplishments.
The Aztec empire viewed Hernan Cortez as a god when he arrived there. To this assumption that Hernan Cortez was a god, the people of the Aztec empire began to trust in him and in turn he betrayed them, killed them off, and robbing them.
Background info: Hernan Cortez was a spanish conquistador who won the land of Mexico for the throne of Spain by conquering the Aztec empire.
Portuguese Nobleman, Explorer, & Navigator
Born: 1467 Died: 1520
How many trips did Christopher Columbus make, where did he land, and what did he find?
Portuguese Nobleman, Conqueror, Statesman, Empire Builder, General & Founder
Born: 1460 Died: 1515
Portuguese Explorer & Navigator
Born: 1480 Died: 1521
Magellan goal to circumnavigate the globe to prove the world is round. He depart from Spain and sailed to Brazil then down the coast of South America to Patagonia. In 1520, he and his men entered what is now Strait of Magellan and it took them about a month to get out of the Strait of Magellan. In March 1521, the fleet anchored in Guam where he became involved in a local war in Philippines and get killed on April 27, 1521. Then, one out of the remainders, Juan Sebastian del Cano, completed the circumnavigation of the globe and return Spain with 18 other remainders to prove the world is round.
He fought in Portugal's wars in Spain and Africa. He was sent on a voyage to India in 1503 - 1504 and went to the East again in 1506 with Tristao da Cunha. In 1507, they captured the island of Socotra in the Arabian Sea, from where Tristao da Cunha sailed for India and Albuquerque for Hormuz. But Albuquerque took Hormuz which is a principal spice - distributing center for the Persian Gulf, and proceeded to India. He reached Cannanore in December 1508 and revealed his secret instructions to supersede Viceroy Francisco de Almeida, with the title of governor. Almeida then refuse and imprison him until a powerful Portuguese fleet under Fernando Coutinho arrived in October 1509 with a confirmation of Albuquerque's appointment. He then assumed power. He was a the major figure in the establishment of the Portuguese sea empire in the East. In 1510, he destroyed the Indian City of Calicut in January 1510, and took Goa (a state in southern India) in March 1510, claiming Goa for Portugal.
Pedro goal is to find a route to India with Bartolomeu Dias under King Manuel I order. They left with 13 ships on March 9, 1500. When they sailed to Brazil, he and Dias both saw Brazil and named it as the "Land of True Cross." Then, they both sailed to Cape of Hope, where they both separate because of the storms. After the storms and the shipwreck at the Cape of Hope, 50 of Cabral's men were killed after an attack with the Muslims traders in Calicut, India, who did not want competition on their trade route for spices in Cochin, which also known as city of Calicut or Kozhikode in India at an early January, 1501. In June 23, 1501, Cabral's returned to Portugal with only 4 of the original 13 ships. Then he retired after the journey under King Manuel I permission. Later when he died, he is buried in a monastery in Santarem, Portugal.
King John II of Portugal appoint Dias to accomplish the mission of finding a trade route to India that he had to followed the route of 15th-century Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão. So then he depart from Portugal in 1487 to sailed to southern tip of Africa where he called the "Cape of Storm." Then he return to Portugal and in 1500 he sailed with Pedro Alvares Cabral to India which under King Manuel I order and they also have to following the Vasco da Gama route. where he and Cabral first see Brazil, they both then name it as the "Land of True Cross." Next, they both sailed it to the "Cape of Storm" where he rename it as the "Cape of Hope" and it is also where he get lost, he get lost because of the strong storm. The result of the voyages is depend on Pedro Alcares Cabral.
Portugal was one of the primary plain the Age of Exploration. Portugal took the principal role during most of the 15th century in searching for a route to Asia by sailing south around Africa which is under the leadership of Prince Henry the Navigator. The principal role made Portuguese understand more about navigation and the geography of the Atlantic Ocean. In the last decade of the 15th century, Christopher Columbus set out to find a route to the Indies but inadvertently "discovered" a new continent which is the New World. After Columbus voyages to the New World, the Spanish, French, English, and Dutch began to have interest in exploring and discovered the land in the Americans. Also, Portuguese sailors continued to make important discoveries in the New World as well.
Rank and Justify the 5 most powerful countries during/after the Age of Exploration. Provide reasoning and examples.
1 = powerful 5= less powerful
1. Portugal = We think Portugal most powerful country before and after Age of Exploration because they're the first one to explored and they still lasted after the Age of Exploration.
2. England = We think England the second powerful country because they come into explored later in 16th century but they can catch up with other countries and being the greatest sea power after the Age of Exploration.
3. Spain = We think Spain the third powerful country because their Armada is being defeat by the English and they cannot even eliminate England when they're not power like Spain. But the Spain is the richest and also a great sea power too.
4. France = We think France the fourth powerful country because they still fighting to be part of the New World even though some of their landmarks being took over by some of other country.
5. Netherlands = We think Netherlands is the weakest country because at the end their power became weaken and all their landmarks being took over by other countries.
On the first voyage Christopher Columbus and his men landed on an island in the Bahamas, Gunanhani, which was then named San Salvador. What Columbus found there was small amounts of gold, native birds, and plants.
On his second voyage Christopher Columbus Sailed and landed in La Navidad, which is off the coast of Haiti. While there he had found out that the spearheads of the natives spears wear made of gold, copper, and silver.
On his third voyage Columbus split his fleet of six ships into to groups. the first fleet went to hispaniola to give supplies to the colonist there. The second group stumble upon an island that Columbus called Trinidad, after being lost at sea and were able to being supplies aboard.
On his fourth and final trip Columbus landed in Panama and many other places on this voyage.
Prince Henry the navigator
Christopher Columbus cont.