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HP 5 The Civil War (Vol. #2)
Transcript of HP 5 The Civil War (Vol. #2)
The civil war
Robert E. Lee
The Compromise of 1850
We are all Stories in the End. Be HISTORIC!
A LATE SUPPER PRODUCTION
THE American CIVIL WAR
north vs. south
billy yank & johnny reb
the blue & the grAy
Scott's Great Snake
The Emancipation Proclamation
The Road to Gettysburg
On the home front
The civil War
The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
CONSCRIPTION, Riots, & battles
Wilmer McLean Civil War introduction
Fort Sumter: April 12, 1861
OPENING SHOTS OF CIVIL WAR: FORT SUMTER, 1861
THE FORT, LOCATED IN CHARLESTON HARBOR,
, WAS THE UNION’S PROPERTY SO WHEN THE CONFEDERATE ARMY ATTACKED,
IT WAS AN ACT OF WAR
THE WAR BEGINS -- FT. SUMTER, South carolina
Rebels took this federal fort on April 12, 1861
~ Stirred feelings of nationalism in both sides
* both began forming armies
4 more states seceded after this attack:
~ North Carolina
Border States (slave states that remained in Union)
(eventually West Virginia also)
Lincoln established “martial law” to keep them
16th U.S. President, Abraham Lincoln
~ 23 states in Union
~ Capitol (Washington, D.C.)
Purpose of the war: Preservation THE UNION
~ see secession as rejection of democracy
~ Why not a war against slavery yet?
Jefferson Davis, CSA President (1st & only)
~ 11 states in CSA
~ Capitol (Richmond, Viginia)
Purpose for War: protect states’ rights
right of self-determination
Will be charged with treason at war’s end
Jefferson Davis: Before the war, he had been an officer in the U.S. Army during the Mexican War and had served as Secretary of War in the U.S. government.
President Lincoln’s Cottage at the Soldier’s Home
President Lincoln and his family resided here from June to November of 1862, 1863, & 1864.
~ Founded in 1851 as a home for retired and disabled veterans of American wars
~ the Soldiers’ Home stood on 250 acres atop the third highest area in the District of Columbia.
Like Buchanan before him, Lincoln enjoyed the cool breezes & refreshing peace of the Soldiers’ Home.
~ It was located three miles north of downtown
At the beginning of the Civil War, uniforms were provided by individual states who chose a variety of colors for their uniforms.
~ This led to massive confusion (often soldiers firing on their own men.)
As the war went on, both sides chose a single color for their uniforms.
~ The Confederates choosing grey while the Union selected blue.
Much trial & error in generals before ultimately commanded by
GENERAL ULYSSES S. GRANT
Why so hard for Lincoln to find a commander?
named after rivers (
“Army of the Potomac”
named after closest body of water (
“Antietam,” “Bull Run”
ROBERT E. LEE declined Lincoln’s offer to lead U.S. troops after Virginia's secession
were named after regions (such as Lee’s
“Army of the North”
were named after the closest settlement (
THE UNION (YANKEE STRATEGY)
ANACONDA PLAN (snake that slowly strangles its prey to death)
BLOCKADE Southern ports
~ Keeps foreign aid out
~ Ruins South’s economy
Send gunboats down the Mississippi River cut off flow of supplies & divide the South.
~ Capture Memphis, Vicksburg, New Orleans
Capture the Capital of Richmond
Exhaust South’s resources, forcing surrender
Once General Grant in command –“TOTAL WAR”
Kept pressure on General Lee’s army & constantly weakening their numbers, taking advantage of the North’s larger population.
The CONFEDERAcy (REBEL STRATEGY)
~ Initially, South had most victories
~ With Britain & France
~ Required South to show it had a chance to win.
Attacks into Union territory to draw Union troops away from the South and to impress potential allies
As war goes on, strategy is:
~ evading the Union army
~ keeping the war going as long as possible, while
inflicting casualties to demoralize the North.
A diplomatic crisis between the U. S. & Great Britain in late 1861
~ The Captain of the USS San Jacinto arrested two Confederate envoys sailing to
Europe aboard a British mail ship, the Trent, to seek support in the Civil War.
~The British were outraged & claimed the seizure of a neutral ship by the U.S. Navy
was a violation of international law.
Ultimately Lincoln released the envoys & averted an armed conflict with Britain.
Republicans (large majorities in both Houses)
Party positions on slavery:
= leave it alone
~ COPPERHEADS (Peace Democrats)
= want peace at any cost; anti-war
~ RADICAL REPUBLICANS
= total rights for blacks
* led by Senator Charles Sumner & Representative Thaddeus Stevens
~ MODERATE REPUBLICANS
= no slavery but not in favor of equal rights
Lincoln suspends individual rights such as…. Habeus corpus, Freedom of the press
Weapons of the Civil War
British Enfield Rifle, 1853 (Confederacy)
While the Confederacy used many types of rifles, this was the most common.
Springfield Rifle, 1861 (Union)
While the Union used many types
of rifles, this was the most common.
World’s First Combat Submarine
The “Picnic Battle” The “Great Skedaddle"
(July 186l) Bull Run Stream / Manassas, Virginia (near Washington, D.C.)
~ North after Richmond (expecting a short war) McDowell
~ South under Beauregard (starting to retreat…except Stonewall Jackson.)
* Stonewall Jackson got his nickname here
Jackson kept fighting, reinforcements showed up & the
SOUTH WINS decisively
~ North panicked / ran back to D.C.
~ McDowell fired; McClellan hired
North realizes it will not be a short & quick war
Clara Barton & the Red Cross
Clara Barton's civil war work began in April 1861.
~ After Bull Run, she worked to obtain & distribute supplies to wounded soldiers
~ had special permission to travel freely behind the lines & put herself in danger.
Common sense practices:
~ triage, clean bandages, everyone trained in basic first aid.
20,000 women become nurses
~ Barton founded the Red Cross in 1861
~ to provide emergency relief in disasters & times of war
~ She served as director until her death
MONITOR vs. MERRIMACK
BATTLE OF SHILOH
BATTLE OF 2nd BULL RUN (2nd Manassas)
August 1862: Bull Run Stream, Virginia (near Washington, D.C.)
~ South led by Lee & Jackson
~ North led by Pope (McClellan demoted after 7 Days Battles)
~ McClellan failed to take Richmond, but gets command again
after Pope loses 2nd Bull Run.
SOUTH WON again
(General Lee is now encouraged to invade the North)
Major problem for McClellan is his consistent belief that he was outnumbered
by the enemy. Drill, drill, drill! But cautious about going into battle.
ANTIETAM - Single Bloodiest Day In U.S. History!
September 1862 at Antietam Creek (Sharpsburg, Maryland)
~ Lee invaded the North hoping for victory that will give European support
~ McClellan found Lee’s plans wrapped around cigars & attacked Lee’s divided forces
~ The South lost 11,000 & the North lost 13,000 in one day!
~ The two sides fought to a standstill, with both sides withdrawing.
NORTH “WON” since Lee retreated back to Virginia (but McClellan fired for good)
EFFECT: Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation
North doesn’t have another major victory for a year!
Abolition pressure by 1862
~ Radicals abolished slavery in DC, then territories
~ Confiscation Act
* freed all slaves owned by persons in rebellion against U.S.
Emancipation = freedom
(January 1, 1863)
~ Not issued earlier for fear of the reaction in the border states
~ Frees ONLY SLAVES IN THE SOUTH (not slaves in the border states)
~ So..slaves making it to Union lines were free
~ So, no immediate effect in really freeing slaves
, did keep the British from allying with the South
any black soldier caught in Union uniform will be returned to slavery. If caught fighting, will be shot on sight with any white commanding officers, even if they surrender.
This effectively ends all POW exchanges.
Fredericksburg (December 13, 1862)
Chancellorsville (May, 1863)
The North’s General Hooker lost 17,000 men to an army half his size
(Hooker then fired)
The South’s General Stonewall (not so much) Jackson was killed at this battle by “friendly fire”
General Lee is encouraged to try invading the North again
The Road to Gettysburg (1863)
GETTYSBURG (July 1 -3, 1863)
Generals Lee, Longstreet, & Pickett (76,000 men)
General Meade (92,000 men)
~ South takes town & force North to high ground
~ South spends next 2 days trying to take the position
NORTH WINS: The South suffers devastating losses
~ South lost 10,000 in “Pickett’s Charge” alone
~ South - 28,000 lost North - 23,000 lost
TURNING POINT: Loss from which the South could never recover
~ General Lee’s 2nd & final invasion of the North
~ Lee retreated on July 4, 1863
Again, General Meade doesn’t pursue (2 more years of war!)
VICKSBURG (May 18 -July 4, 1863)
THE CIVIL WAR ON THE HOMEFRONT
~ Booming economy
~ Growing industry (troops well supplied)
Many women workers
~ Invention of sewing machine by Elias Howe
BLACKS IN THE MILITARY
BLACK SOLDIERS GET THEIR CHANCE!
Many join Union army & navy after the Emancipation Proclamation
~ (January 1863) Massachesetts Governor establishes one of first black regiments
~ led by Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, 25 year old son of wealthy white, Boston abolitionists
Union, however, was reluctant to let them fight and will use them primarily in manual labor only
THE 54TH MASSACHUSETTS
(July 18, 1863) Get their chance to prove themselves in battle
~ Shaw volunteers the regiment to lead attack on Ft. Wagner
* a Confederate battery in Charleston, South Carolina
The 54th fought bravely but ultimately suffered over 40% casualties
The Fort was never taken
Impact of the 54th
of black soldiers
~ Over 180,000 enlist
August Saint-Gaudens Memorial
to Colonel Shaw (Boston
African -Americans in Civil War Battles
Life of a Soldier
A good surgeon took 10 minutes to amputate a leg
The state of medical knowledge during the Civil War was primitive.
~ Doctors did not understand infection & did little to prevent it.
~ A time before antiseptics & sterility during surgery.
~ No antibiotics were available
~ A minor wound could easily become infected, & hence fatal.
While the typical soldier was at very high risk of being shot & killed in
combat, he faced an even greater risk of dying from disease.
By the end of the Civil War, there were over 60,000 amputations performed
~ Battlefield medicine grew in importance
By the later part of the war
~ bromine is used as an antiseptic
~ gangrene is rare
~ 3/4 of amputee patients survive
Twice as many died from diseases such as dysentery, measles, small pox, pneumonia, & malaria rather than from wounds received in combat.
~ The overall poor hygiene in camp
~ The lack of adequate sanitation facilities
~ The cold & lack of shelter & suitable clothing
~ The poor quality of food & water
~ The crowded condition of the camps made the typical
camp a literal breeding ground for disease.
NORTH AND SOUTH ADOPT CONSCRIPTION
Due to their enormous losses, both the Union and the Confederacy were forced to adopt “conscription” (A military draft)
~ Confederacy drafted all able-bodied men ages 17-50
~ Union drafted all able-bodied men ages 20-45
Any person in the Union could buy their way out of being drafted for $300
Future President Grover Cleveland (#22 & #24) bought a substitute
NEW YORK DRAFT RIOTS!
New York had thousands of immigrants living in the city who had no ties to either side of the fighting
(July 13-16, 1863) mostly Irish immigrants took to the streets in protest against the draft
~ They burned government buildings, newspaper offices & homes of rich citizens
By the end of the day on July 16, New York City lay in ruins
(November 1863) Chattanooga, Tennessee [a major rail center]
~ Grant & Rosecrans for the North
~ Bragg for the South
~ North drives South out of Tennessee & back to Georgia
Only 4 states left to conquer:
~ Georgia, South & North Carolina, & Virginia
General Grant becomes Supreme Commander –
~ goes to Virginia to crush Lee
ENTER GENERAL SHERMAN for Georgia & Carolinas!
Battle of Olustee (Florida)
Union troops in Jacksonville & head west
~ 5500 men & 16 cannons
Confederates draw Union forces to Olustee
~ Swamp on one side, lake on the other, narrow
passageway in between
Union forces withdraw
~ Sent 54th Massachusetts & Montgomery’s Brigade
out to cover the retreat
Casualties: Confederates: 946; Union: 1,861
Union forces in Jacksonville until end of war….but never ventured out in significant force again
Battles of Wilderness, Spotsylvania, & Cold Harbor
General Grant head commander of Union forces by 1864
~ No turning back! Onward to Richmond!! Keep after Lee!!
Battles in May 1864 in Virginia between Grant & Lee
~ firing so heavy woods catch on fire; many burn alive
~ Longstreet killed here by “friendly fire”
~ Catastrophic Union losses at Wilderness but Grant
kept going after Lee. Grant gets much criticism from the North
Cold Harbor: 7,000 Union dead in 20 minutes!
~ Total losses from both sides of 15,500 (North-13,000/South-2,500)
~ Union soldiers pinned their names on their uniforms so...
~ Grant considers this battle his greatest mistake
Grant hasn’t quite defeated Lee but by June 1864 he has Richmond under siege.
Grant & Sherman
Battle of Atlanta
General Sherman moves south from Tennessee
~ Captured Atlanta by September 1864
~ Occupied it until November & then burned it down
This victory helped Lincoln win reelection in November 1864
~ His opponent was the general he fired twice, General George McClellan
Sherman’s March to the Sea
Union General William T. Sherman
had already captured Atlanta, but wanted to leave sixty thousand troops there while he took the rest of the army on a march to the Atlantic Ocean through Savannah.
~ Vowed to “make Georgia howl”
~ Cut a 60-mile wide, 300 mile long path of destruction from Atlanta
~ Took Savannah in December 1864
Sherman offers Savannah to Lincoln as a Christmas present
Sherman now heads through South Carolina & North Carolina to meet up with Grant in Virginia and continues his path of total destruction
As the Union army moved through the South, they would destroy train tracks by heating up the rails and bending them into a bow - became known as “Sherman’s Neckties
April 9, 1865 (Palm Sunday) Appomattox Court House, Virginia
~ General Lee surrendered on behalf of the Confederacy on April 9, 1865.
~ Lee’s army had become small, prompting Grant to achieve many
military victories toward the conclusion of the war.
~ Grant allowed Lee to keep his saber and horse in a sign of respect.
Generous surrender terms were given:
~ Men could go home if they promised to quit fighting
~ Officers could keep their pistols
~ Soldiers could keep their horses
Very somber, formal, dignified
All other Southern generals had surrendered by end of April
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln (Vampire hunter)
Booth jumped out of the balcony,
broke his leg, but escaped --sic semper tyrannis!
~ Lincoln died the next morning
* at the Peterson house across the street
12 day manhunt for Booth
Finally, trapped in a barn in Maryland,
refused to come out, and was shot
The Trial & Execution of the Conspirators
The conspirators were Mary Surratt, Lewis Powell, David Herold, George Atzerdot, Michael O’Laughlen,
Samuel Arnold, Edman Spangler, & Dr. Samuel Mudd.
Tried in a military tribunal court
~ the government felt that the nature of the case required the use of this court
* A majority vote would result in a guilty verdict, while a two-thirds majority would be a death sentence.
All eight were found guilty, with Surratt, Powell, Herold, and Atzerdot all being sentenced to death by hanging.
Laughlen died in prison, while the last three were pardoned by President Andrew Johnson.
Leather gloves worn by Lincoln to Ford's Theater on the night of his assassination. Blood stains are visible at the cuffs.
Conditions, and resulting disease, were even worse for Civil War prisoners, who
were held in the most miserable of conditions.
~ An estimated 56,000 men perished in Civil War prisons
~ a casualty rate far greater than any battle during the war's bloody tenure.
The high mortality rate was not deliberate, but the result of ignorance of
nutrition & proper sanitation on both sides of the conflict, according to scholars.
~ The hundreds of thousands imprisoned exceeded either side's ability to manage
~ There were more than 150 POW camps.
Elmira prison in New York saw a 25 percent mortality rate. The South's infamous
Camp Sumter & Andersonville prison, claimed the lives of 29 percent of its inmates
~ Housed nearly 33,000 men at its peak—
*One of the largest "cities" of the Confederacy
~ Lacking sewer or sanitation facilities
*Inmates turned "Stockade Creek" into a massive, disease-ridden latrine.
~ Summer rainstorms would flood the open sewer, spreading filth.
~ Visitors approaching the camp often retched from the stench.
The prison's oppressive conditions claimed 13,000 lives by the war's end.
Original Andersonville Plan
Planned to hold 10,000 men. Had over 32,000 at one time.
Burying Dead Union POWs
Captain Henry Wirz
Henry Wirz was arrested in May 1865 by a federal cavalry
~ taken by rail to Washington, D.C.
~ federal government intended to place him on trial for
conspiring to impair the lives of Union prisoners of war
~ Executed in November 1865 for conspiracy & murder in his
command of Camp Sumter…Andersonville
The Wirz trial is significant because it was cited in the trials of
war criminals in the twentieth century.
Military personnel were now to be held accountable for following orders
that resulted in crimes against humanity which violated the rules of war.
Legacy of the War
The Civil War was the bloodiest war in American history.
~ “The War Between the States”
~ “The Brother’s War”
~ “War of Northern Aggression”.
More than 600,000 Americans lost their lives with countless others severely wounded.
One result of would be the 13th , 14th & 15th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution
While African Americans would be forced to wait nearly a hundred more years for
equal treatment under the law,
the Civil War settled once and for all the question of slavery and the supremacy of the Federal government.
NORTHWEST LAND ORDINANCE (1787)
~ 5,000 citizens in a territory gives it territorial status (territorial legislatures)
~ Once population of 60,000 persons reached, could then apply for statehood
~ Prohibited slavery north of Ohio River
~ Allowed slavery to exist in United States
~ Article IV provides for return of escaped slaves
~ Article I., Section 9 - slave trade to continue without interference for 20 years
Invention of the Cotton Gin (1793)
Eli Whitney’s invention made cotton very profitable.
~ More Southern plantations moved to cash crop cotton farming
(greater need for a large amount of cheap labor, SLAVES.)
Southern economy became a one crop economy, depending on cotton & slavery.
Northern economy was based more on industry
~ bought South’s raw cotton and turned it into finished goods.
Society develops differently in both sections:
~ Northern urban, industrial culture required people of different cultures
and classes to work together.
~ South continued to hold onto antiquated, rigid social order with slaves
MISSOURI COMPROMISE (1820)
Balance of power equal in Senate between slave & non-slave states
Non-slave states hold power in House
Missouri seeks admission as a slave state
~ Missouri admitted as slave state
~ Maine admitted as non-slave state
For remainder of the Louisiana Purchase:
~ slavery forbidden north of the 36 30’ parallel (EXCEPT MISSOURI)
~ slavery allowed south of line
NAT TURNER’S REVOLT (1831)
Southampton County, Virginia
Turner - slave, Baptist preacher receiving visions to lead a slave rebellion
~ Over 70 slaves executed 55 whites in their homes/beds at night
~ Turner eventually caught, hanged, & skinned
~ Between 100-200 slaves killed in the aftermath
Effect is more stringent slave laws in South
TARIFF CRISES 1828 - 1833
For years the South had demanded an end to "protective tariffs," arguing that they increased the price of northern goods, led to retaliatory tariffs on cotton, & established a dangerous precedent of national power.
~ Southerners demanded repeal of Tariff of abominations (1828)
~ John Calhoun’s South Carolina Exposition & Protest
Jackson, sympathetic to southern concerns
strongly opposed South Carolina’s threats to secede from the Union unless the tariff was repealed. Labeled it "treason“
~ Tariff only slightly reduced in 1832
~ South Carolina "nullified" the tariff, declaring that it would not be collected in South Carolina.
Compromise Tariff of 1833 (Henry Clay) reduced the tariff to 1816 levels & avoided war. Jackson, nonetheless passed "Force Bill," which affirmed the national government's right to collect tariff duties and uphold laws
Crisis was averted, BUT hard feelings remained…
ANNEXATION OF TEXAS (1845)
Major issue in the Election of 1844 (Polk vs. Clay)
Forces favoring admission included:
~ Pro-slavery Southerners
~ And all those who feared (with some reason) that
Britain was considering an active role in Texas.
Northerners opposed annexation based on:
~ Moral/economic objections to spread of slavery
~ Admission of Texas would lead to war with Mexico.
President Tyler waited until 3 days before leaving office
to sign a joint resolution annexing Texas
War with Mexico imminent
WILMOT PROVISO (1846)
An effort to stop the spread of slavery
~ Democrat Congressman Wilmot introduced measure in the House
that would bar slavery from any territory acquired from Mexico.
~ Wilmot Proviso passed the House in 1846 and 1847;
both times, however, it was defeated in the Senate.
WAR WITH MEXICO (1846-1848)
Sparked by dispute over southern boundary of Texas
~ Criticized by many (Lincoln) as strong-arm politics
~ Mexico lost over 50% of its territory & 1% of its population
~ Southern boundary of Texas at Rio Grande
~ US pays $15 million for California & New Mexico
MEXICAN CESSION brings slavery back to the political forefront
COMPROMISE OF 1850
Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852)
Literary attack on slavery
~ Sold 10,000 copies in first week
~ $300,000 in first year
~ $2 million in a decade!
South criticizes - plantation life distorted; slaves atypical
Emotional impact swayed many to political action
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
Birth of the Republican Party (1856)
Other opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Bleeding Kansas (1856)
Both North & South determined to have Kansas (1855)
~ Many pro-slavery Missourians move in
5000 “border ruffians” descend to elect territorial legislature
~ promptly enact slave code (Democrats) [Lecompton]
Antislavery settlers hold their own election [Topeka]
~ two governments in Kansas in 1856
Pottawatomie Creek (May 1856)
~ JOHN BROWN (vigilante)
~ Brutally murdered, mutilated 5 pro-slaveryites in
retaliation for 5 anti-slaveryites they killed in Lawrence
Terror, mayhem from both sides; over 200 dead
~ Republicans dub it “Bleeding Kansas”
Dress rehearsal of Civil War
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)
HOLDINGS OF THE COURT:
~ Slaves are not citizens & have no right to sue
~ Slaves are "Property," not citizens & thus could be taken
into free territories without becoming free
MISSOURI COMPROMISE BAN ON SLAVERY NORTH OF 36’30’ LINE IS
The Lincoln-Douglas (Illinois Senate) Debates (1858)
7 DEBATES IN 7 CITIES
ISSUE IS EXTENSION OF SLAVERY INTO THE TERRITORIES
During debate at Freeport, Lincoln asks Douglas:
“Can the people of a territory in any lawful way…exclude slavery prior to the formation of a State Constitution?”
Douglas’ response becomes known as the “FREEPORT DOCTRINE”
~ Accepts Dred Scott decision forbidding Congress to ban slavery from territories
BUT, notes that a territory could effectively ban slavery by not passing laws to keep enslaved persons under control
Although Douglas wins the Senate seat, this position costs him the South’s support in the 1860 presidential election
John Brown’s Raid
at Harper’s Ferry (1859)
1860 Presidential Election
Republican Platform offers something for everyone:
~ Non-extension of slavery (for the Free-Soilers)
~ Protective tariff (for the Northern Industrialists)
~ Government aid to build a Pacific Railroad (for North & West)
~ Internal improvements at federal expense (for West)
~ Free homesteads for the public (for farmers)
Effect: Southern states will secede
Crittenden Compromise (1861)
Last ditch effort to avoid secession & reestablish 36’30’ line across entire U.S.
Lincoln won’t agree to any expansion of slavery
Secession on the horizon!
most important issue leading to the Civil War?
regarding slavery in a democracy
keeping the South dependent on Northern interests
of Southern influence declining to a minority in national politics
of not allowing “King Cotton” to physically spread
Geographic & Political Issue
Moral & Political Issue
Geographic & Moral Issue
Geographic & Political Issue
Political & Geographic Issues
Geographic & Political Issue
Repealed portion of Missouri Compromise banning slavery
north of 36’30’ line & wrecked the 1950 Compromise
~ North protests to a level not seen since Stamp & Intolerable Acts!
~ North refuses to enforce Fugitive Slave Law
Slave Scott sues for freedom based on a short-term residence (with master) in a free territory
ISSUE is whether slavery can be legally outlawed in a territory
~ Majority Southern (Supreme Court rules with the South)
(Chief Justice Taney from Maryland)
Brown raids federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia
~ to arm and liberate slaves & punish slaveowners
~ to establish a black republic in Virginia Hills
John Brown found guilty of treason and hanged
~ Becomes a martyr to the North
Reinforces Southern fear of slave revolts & need to protect itself from abolitionists
Political & Geographic Issue
ALSO KNOWN AS...
The War Between the States
The War of Northern Aggression
The War of Succesion
Advantages of the Union (North)
Advantages of the Confederacy (South)
Confederates had the best generals
Strong military traditions with many officers trained at West Point
Southerners “bred to fight”
Defending is always easier than attacking
Fighting on familiar territory
Farmers fight better than factory workers
DISADVANTAGES OF THE SOUTH
9 million in 11 states
1.14 million age 15-40
1 million mobilized
9,000 miles of non-uniform railway
Union had double the population of the South
Double the railroads & numerous ships
5 times as many factories
23 million people in 22 states
4 million people ages 15-40 (potential soldiers)
2.4 million mobilized (Army)
Most of the grain crops & meat
Strong central government already in place
extensive banking system already in place
109,000 manufacturing plants
22,000 miles of integrated railway
(LINCOLN'S WAR MACHINE)
The trent affair
FINANCING THE CIVIL WAR
~ Income tax (3% on incomes over $800)
* Collected $667 million
~ Direct tax on states
~ Loans (over $2.2 billion)
~ Issuing “greenbacks” ($431 million) leads to inflation
Cost of living DOUBLED in the North by the end of War
~ Blockade is major issue
* No $ through tariffs
* Supplies difficult
~ Income & excise taxes (covers only 2% of needs)
~ Loans (borrowed $712 million)
~ Printing paper $ (over $1.5 billion)
Civil War Weapons
~ Better guns & bullets
~ Gatling Gun (early machine gun)
~ Better Artillery
~ Balloons (Aerial reconnaissance)
First Modern War
the battle of Bull Run
~ Merrimack (South) was 1st ironclad ship (renamed the Virginia)
~ Monitor (North) is first U.S. iron ship
Merrimack attacking in Chesapeake Bay –
~ major damage to Union wooden ships
~ Monitor arrives next day
Battle of the Ironclads first time in history
~ Neither side “wins” but NORTH regains control of Chesapeake Bay
SUPERIORITY OF IRON SHIPS SHOWN!
(April 1862) Tennessee & Mississippi borders
~ North on way to Corinth, Mississippi (rail center)
~ Surprise attack by the South
~ U.S. Grant for North & Johnston for South
~ Terrible, bloody 2-days with high casualties
* more in 2 days than these...
- Revolutionary War
- War of 1812
- Mexican War combined!
U.S. Grant allows South to retreat & gets demoted
War no longer seen as “romantic” test of courage
NORTH WON … but Grant realizes the only way the war will be won is by total conquest of South
September 22, 1862 (warning)
Emancipation in 1863
After ANTIETAM, the SOUTH WINS two major victories in Virginia under Generals Lee & Jackson
Fredericksburg (December 1862.)
~ Union General Burnside delayed for more than 2 weeks due to late supplies –
~ Confederate General Lee positioned his army, deploying snipers to easily pick off Federal troops.
~ Burnside retreats with the remnants of his army
(fired by Lincoln.)
The Gettysburg Address (November 19, 1863)
The speech contains only 272 words, but is considered by most historians to be one of the greatest speeches in American History.
The battle first began on May 18th, 1863 (ended July 4th, 1863)
~ General Ulysses S. Grant for the North
~ North is seeking full control of the Missssippi River
~ Grant had made 5 attempts to capture Vicksburg
~ Grant surrounds the city & bombards them for more than 6 weeks
* starves them out
~ Now has total control of the MS River
~ has cut the South in two (cut off from Texas & Arkansas -major food source)
Romantic notion of war is shattered by large casualties at battles
~ Many were ill-equipped & homesick
~ Lack of food (staples were beans, salted pork & hard tack)
~ Soldiers often seized food along the way
Confederates had even less & often lacked basics such as boots
~ Many deserted & went home
TACK is a simple type of cracker or biscuit
~ made from flour, water, & sometimes salt.
~ Inexpensive & long-lasting (sustenance in the absence of perishable)
The name derives from the British sailor slang for food, "tack".
Civil War Amputation Kit
April 14, 1865
1st President assassinated (Out of 4)
~ Killed on April 14, 1865 (Good Friday)
~ He was attending a play at Ford’s Theatre with his wife.
~ Shot in the back of the head by John Wilkes Booth while watching the play Our American Cousin.
~ Booth’s original plan was a conspiracy to kidnap Lincoln & hold him for ransom (release of Confederate POWS)
~ Then Lee surrendered on April 9 so Booth changes plan to assassination….of Lincoln, Grant, Seward, & Johnson
Sic semper tyrannis (thus always to tyrants!)
andersonville & other hell holes
(54th) Sgt. William Carney -->Medal of Honor