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Layer A

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by

Linda Guo

on 4 February 2013

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Transcript of Layer A

Canada is very focused on preserving the delicate balances of cultures present within its borders. It strives to affirm the collective identity and rights
of groups in society to create a sense
of belonging. These are the principles
on which Canada is built upon:
trust and multiculturalism. The First Nations. Metis, and Inuit
peoples have collective rights, as well
as the Francophones and Anglophones. ANGLO-
PHONES CANADA'S
CONSTITUTION FIRST NATIONS Who has collective rights in Canada? Layer A Linda To what extent has Canada affirmed collective rights? There have been many attempts
by the Canadian government to
assimilate the First Nations people. Ethnocentrism and bigotry was common. Layer A Collective rights are the rights held by
Canadians who belong to one of several
groups in society. They are acknowledged and
protected by the constitution. Collective rights recognize the founding groups of Canada. This country would not exist without
the cooperation and contribution of these
factions. What are collective rights? METIS INUIT FRANCO-
PHONES MODERN
TREATIES MANITOBA
ACT HISTORICAL
TREATIES INDIAN
ACT Canada has not always been known to be fair and equitable to its citizens. The Charter of Rights and Freedoms was created in 1982 solely for this reason. Before then, the government held full autonomy. Residential schools removed children from their families and cut them off from their language, culture, and identity. The Indian Act was made in an attempt to control the First Nations and was passed without a consultation. The government viewed the First Nations as people who needed to be "helped." The treaty regulated how the First Nations conducted their affairs, denying them the authority to govern themselves. It also restricted First Nations' mobility, fundamental, legal, and democratic rights. The government attempted to nullify the Numbered Treaties several times, but were shot down by the First Nations before it could happen. The Metis were denied their rights to land by the government, who claimed that they had no inherent rights to it. It was only after several notable figures and rebellions did the government start to reconsider
their past judgements. In some cases, the Metis did not receive their promised land. One such example is the current city of Winnipeg; it stands on land that was guaranteed to the Metis
under the Manitoba Act. First Nations The Metis Despite the government's past inequities, rights and freedoms are now being given where it was previously denied. First Nations now have several treaties in place to protect them from assimilation and a loss of culture. New treaties are constantly being passed to better protect their collective rights and sovereignty. The Metis were recognized as a part of the Aboriginals, giving them the inherent rights to land. The temporary Metis Settlements had been made into a permanent land base, equipping the Metis with the right to manage their own affairs. Several sets of legislation protected their right to this land, as well as any resources that may be pertained on their property. The Charter of Rights and Freedoms gave Francophones and Anglophones equal sway and influence in Parliament, maintaining the delicate balance achieved during Confederation. English and French were made the two official languages of Canada. Any Francophone or Anglophone minority population that exceeded a certain size had a right to publicly funded schools in that The Francophones felt oppressed by the dominant presence of the Anglophones. The execution of Louis Riel only confirmed their suspicions; Francophones and Anglophones will never be equal in the eyes of this new country. The Francophones Without rights that protect their heritage and
culture, the smaller founding groups of Canada would be oppressed until it was assimilated into a dominant one. This would result in a huge loss of culture for Canada; both the French, English, and Aboriginals played an instrumental role in the history of the country. Thus, the government has in place laws that respect and encourage exploration of these different cultures, ensuring that Canada's diversity would live
on for future generations to behold. language. What laws has Canada made to enforce collective rights? To ensure that Canada's values and history will not be undermined, the government has passed several pieces of legislation to enforce these ideals. First Nations The Numbered Treaties The Charter of Rights and Freedoms The Numbered Treaties are historic agreements made between the Queen and the First Nations people. It has roots in the Royal Proclamation of 1763, recognizing First Nations' rights to land and the idea of
making treaties through peaceful
negotiations. First Nations agreed to share
their land and resources peacefully. The
government accepted terms on
education, annuities, etc. Section 35 of Canada's constitution affirms the First Nations, Metis, and Inuit peoples as Aboriginals. This granted them inherent rights to land and upholds their existing treaties. Indian Act Official Languages (Francophones and Anglophones) Under the BNA Act of 1867, Confederation had established Canada as a bicultural and bilingual country. John A. Macdonald and
George Etienne Cartier handled the
Francophone-Anglophone rights,
ensuring that both were
equal in the new country. Charter of Rights and Freedoms Sections 16-20 recognizes French and English as the two official languages of Canada. Citizens have the right to conduct affairs with the federal government in either language. New Brunswick was established as a bilingual province. Charter of Rights and Freedoms (con't) Section 23 of the Charter says that any Francophone or Anglophone minority that exceeds a certain population size has the right to publicly funded schools in that language. This is important because children are the key to a culture's future, and educating young minds in their chosen dialect helps to ensure that their
identity will live on. The Metis The Metis do not have any historical treaties with the government. At the time, they were not considered to have any inherent rights to land. Manitoba Act The Manitoba Act was passed in
response to the Red River Resistance. It
established Manitoba as a bilingual province, providing them with education rights for both the Catholics and Protestants. The Metis were to receive
more than 500 000 ha of land, along with
the farms they had already cultured
along the banks of the Red River. Land Acts Alberta's government passed legislation that allowed the Metis to receive the Metis Settlements as a permanent land base, as well as to participate with the development of any gas and oil resources found on the land. The legislations included the Constitution of Alberta Amendment Act, Metis Settlements Accord
Implementation Act, Metis Settlements
Act, and Metis Settlements Land Protection Act. The Indian Act was originally intended to assimilate the First Nations people. However, the government has revised the act several times to ensure that it is providing appropriate and
adequate support. Despite the government's previous shortcomings, it has now drastically improved the collective rights and identites of all its citizens. New laws reinforce and uphold the spirit of Canada's diverse and deep culture. It focuses on equality for all its citizens, ensuring that the things that make Canada what it is today will never be
lost. Thank you. Thank you. Conclusion
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