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Theology of the Body

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Karmen Darwin

on 25 October 2013

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Transcript of Theology of the Body

Man and Woman
He Created Them

The Basic Foundations of
Pope John Paul’s Theology of the Body

Man and Woman He Created Them

Collection of 129 Catecheses

September 5, 1979 – November 28, 1984

Theology of the Body is, “one of the boldest reconfigurations of Catholic theology in centuries and is kind of theological time bomb set to go off with dramatic consequences, sometime in the third millennium of the Church.” – George Weigel
Background
“The condition of man... is a condition of war of everyone against everyone.”
“The life of man is of no greater importance to the universe than that of an oyster.”
Modern Man
The body is considered without or separate from the soul
Example: “Sexual energy is the constructive biological energy of the psychological apparatus that forms the structure of human feeling and thinking.” (one of Freud’s students in 1936)
Emphasis on the usefulness of actions
The useful is whatever gives pleasure and excludes is opposites for the maximum amount of people
Pleasure is the essential ingredient of human happiness
Fails to recognize dignity of man
Modern Man’s Ideology
Utilitarianism
Dualism
“The fact that theology also includes the body should not astonish or surprise anyone who is conscious of the mystery and reality of the Incarnation. Through the fact that the Word of God became flesh, the body entered theology – that is the science that has divinity for its object – I would say, through the main door.”
Theology…of the Body
An Alternative View?
Man in the Future:
Who is Man?
Original Man:
Historical Man:
Humanity before the fall
Humanity after the fall to the return of Christ
Humanity after the return of Christ
They said to him, "Why then did Moses command one to give a certificate of divorce, and to put her away?“ He said to them, "For your hardness of heart Moses allowed you to divorce your wives, but from the beginning it was not so. (Matthew 19: 7-8)
What does it mean to be human?
John Paul II takes us back to the beginning
Both body and soul
Created in the Image of God
Original Man: In the beginning
“…that all may be one. . .
as we are one…"
(John 17:21-22)
“So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them.” (Genesis 1:27)
Trinity
The Father is eternally giving Himself to the Son
The Son is eternally giving Himself to the Father
The Holy Spirit proceeds from both of them
Image of God
“Man, who is the only creature on earth which God willed for itself, cannot fully find himself except through a sincere gift of himself." (Gaudium et Spes 24)
“This at last is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh.” (Genesis 2:23)
“ Therefore, a man leaves his father and mother and cleaves to his wife and they become one flesh.” (Genesis 2:24)
The "Originals"
Original Solitude
Original Unity
As a rational creature
Without a woman
“Then the Lord God said, ‘It is not good that the man should be alone.’” (Genesis 2:18)
Loved each other without self-seeking motivations
“The freedom of the gift is the response to the deep awareness of the gift.” (May 30, 1984)
Original Nakedness
Naked without shame
Lust did not exist and all sexual desires were pure
The body expressed to them the call to love as a communion of persons
The body has the power to express love

Original Interior Freedom
A constant eagerness to avoid what is shameless
Protects the value of the person
Reveals the value of the person in the context of sexual values
Shame and Shamelessness
Occurs when something that ought to be private somehow becomes public
Shame leads to concealment of sexual values, “particularly in so far as they constitute in the mind of a particular person ‘a potential object of enjoyment’ for persons of the other sex” (Love and Responsibility)
Men are aware of their sensuality and this is a source of shame for them
Women do not feel as great of a need to conceal

Shame
Modesty
Fall short of the demands of shame and the demands of sexual modesty
The values of sex are given such prominence that the person is then put in the position to become an object of use
The loss of the healthy tendency to be ashamed of making another an object of use based on sexual values
Love does not allow a person to descend to an object of lust
Gives awareness of the proper relationship between the value of the person and sexual values
Shamelessness
Absorption of Shame by Love
Concupiscence: the inclination to sin
Experience of Shame
Disunity of Humanity
Between man and God
Between male and female
Between man’s intellect, will, and emotions
This is Historical Man

Original Sin...
“You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall not commit adultery.’ But I say to you that every one who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart.” (Matthew 5:27-28)

“By means of lust, a certain woman begins to exist for a certain man not as a subject of…personal attraction or as a subject of communion, but exclusively as an object for the potential satisfaction of the sexual need.” (Sept 24, 1980)

Historical Man: You have heard it said…
Adultery of the Heart
Historical man’s heart
With concupiscence, man battles with lust
Lust: the disordering of sexual desires
Christ’s words in the Scripture passage “reactivate” the call to truth and gives it real power
Christ’s words are not so much an accusation of lust as they are an appeal to the human heart
Redemption in Christ
The Holy Spirit, gives us the ability to able to live a life worthy of our call to love and according to our dignity
“Man is called to that supreme value that is love. He is called as a person in the truth of his humanity, therefore also in the truth of his masculinity or femininity, in the truth of his body.”
This call of is a deeper call than even the sin man inherited
“The children of this age marry and are given I marriage, but those who are accounted worthy to attain to that age and to the resurrection from the dead neither marry nor are given in marriage” (Luke 20:34-35)
Our bodies are also called to a spiritual communion with God
This will occur in the Marriage Feast of the Lamb
“The resurrection will consist in the perfect participation of all that is physical in man and in what is spiritual in him” (Dec 8, 1981)
Man in the Future:
The Resurrection of the Body

God created man as body and soul
Conjugal love makes the marriage vows visible
Speaks of a ‘truth’ and ‘falsity’ of the body
Procreative and Unitive aspects of marriage are built into our bodies
Language of the Body
Pope Paul VI’s Encyclical, July 25, 1968
“It is therefore evident that a document such as the encyclical Humanae vitae characterized by this content embraces an adequate concept and vision of man. Such a concept and vision is indeed its basis. This anthropological stratum of the document does not appear in the form of a systematic exposition, but is rather “outlined” in it and in this way permeates the whole content and the entire text from beginning to end. By analyzing the encyclical Humanae vitae we can discover a broad portrait of anthropological thought, and we can also see the possibility of enriching it with a content that will be simultaneously more detailed and more systematic.” (The Anthropological Vision of Humane Vitae, 1, Karol Wojtyla)
Humanae Vitae
http://www.christendom-awake.org/pages/may/anthrop-visionjpII.htm
Original Happiness
Living and loving in marriage as God loves
Free, Total, Faithful, Fruitful
A visible, efficacious sign of an invisible reality
An outward sign, inward grace, and Divine institution
“Not all men can receive the precept, but only those to whom it is given. For there are eunuchs who have been so from birth and there are eunuchs who have been made eunuchs by men, and there are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs for the sake of the kingdom of heaven. He who is able to receive this, let him receive it.” (Matthew 19:11-12)
This way of life anticipates the Resurrection
Remind us that our bodies do not end with the grave, but with the Resurrection
Inspire us in hope of the victory over sin
Virginity for the Sake of the Kingdom
“As the church is subject to Christ, so let wives also be subject in everything to their husbands. Husbands, love your wives, as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her, that he might sanctify her…” (Excerpt from Ephesians 5: 21-33)
Marriage
God’s love for His people is reflected in married love
Israel is described as an “unfaithful wife”
“For your Creator is your husband, Lord of hosts is his name; the Holy One of Israel is your Redeemer” (Isaiah 54:5)
Christ and the Church
Marriage corresponds to the vocation of Christians only when it reflects the love which Christ the Bridegroom gives to the Church, his Bride, and which the Church…attempts to return to Christ.” (August 18, 1982)
The other is not seen as an object of use, but as a gift to be received
Relation to Theology of the Body
What is a sacrament?
Theme of Marriage in the Old Testament
Why celibacy?

love.
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